b'Health PSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIORAL HEALTH 123Psychology &NEW! BEST SELLER!Behavioral Health Fifth EditionEdited by Paul Moglia, Ph.D.Whether you are just starting out in psychology or doing some quick fact checking,a good subject encyclopedia can be a great tool. There are many out there.Salem Health: Psychology & Behavioral Health is among the best. Articles are written clearly and structured in a way that will be helpful to students, providing the type of psychology, and abstract and key concepts. An excellent addition for academic and public libraries.ARBAThis set is easy to navigate and provides information suitable for undergraduate students across disciplines but is still accessible for general readers hoping tofind out more information about psychology.BooklistThis five-volume encyclopedia covers the history of psychology as an experimentaland social science, as an applied health discipline, as a profession, and as a meeting point for some of the greatest minds in the field. This set discusses behaviorism, cognition, perception, cognitive behavioral psychology, psychodynamic psychology, object relations theory, family systems therapy, Gestalt therapy, the biological bases of FREE Online Accesshuman behavior, sexuality, personality theory, and comparative therapies of treatment.NEW!FREEAlso included are mental and behavioral health diagnoses, disorders, and syndromes, and how they are assessed. Essays also address how culture, ethnicity, and gender affect psychological theory and beliefs, treatment outcomes, and acquiring self-identity. There are essays focused on individual assessment and evaluation instruments includingCrowd behavior Psychology & Behavioral Healththeir strengths and limitations.Crowd behavior Because crowds and differ somuchthereinistheiralsocomposition,organization, purpose, considerableType of psychology: Social psychology variationin typical behavior and schol-arly attention has tended crowd to focus on.Psituationsopular in whichCrowdis the study of how the behavior of peoplecrowd behavior isoftenconsidered has an problematic. unusual problem In these to solvesitu- This updated fifth edition includes over 700 articles. All entries have been reviewed by in groups behavior differs from more thatoffocused individuals. on their People social in identity crowds ations, the crowd example, how to respond to a hostile police oftenbecome individual identity. As a result, they arerapidlyforthanon their muchmuch more influenced by the norms of the group. force. The occurrence of riots andviolenceare not attestssolvedto thefact thatthese sorts ofproblems alwaysour team of medical experts to ensure that the most up-to-date information on disorders,constructivelyby crowds. of It shouldbeinpositivenoted, however, Key Concepts effect well.capablebehavingways asPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIORAL HEALTH that crowds areBystandertreatments, drugs, and therapies are included.Dozens of new entries have also been Deindividualism UNDERLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES Diffusion Social identity of responsibility theory Early theories of crowdupbehavior of criminals hypothesized or thementallythat un- ruly crowds were madethis perspectiveadded to the set.Essays range from one to eight pages and address how culture,INTRODUCTION deficient.Proponentsofexplained assumedthatper- Crowds are groups of people who are together for shortcrowd behavior could beby theindividualthe actions thatThepeople study inofacrowd performexaminesand how of peopleofwere people more in likely the crowd to be found inofacrowd.crowdbeLe- periods of time. sonalitiesand that certain kinds crowdbehaviorethnicity, and gender affect psychological theory and beliefs.these actions differ from the behavior of individuals act-ing alone. Crowd behavior became a focus of scholarlyBon provided a more psychological analysisofcrowd. highHeintelligence believedthoughtthe late nineteenth andearlyin twentieth cen-havior ,become transformturies in in to social turmoil westernEurope. couldrecognizing members people,reactionthatevenof anpeopleunruly obliterating their normal Italiancriminologist Scipio Sighele was among thethat crowds to be rational and putting them in a hypnotic, to abilities disapprovedEssays begin with standard information, including any relevant dates, the type offirstwrite about crowd behavior; ofcrowdFrench psychologypsycholo-,highly suggestible state. Le Bon vioral Heal Crowd behaviorgist Gustave Le Bon, the founder behavior inPsy all forms;chology & Beha consequently, in his bookofhethcrowdpaint- ed an extremely negative picture of crowd behaviorThe Crowd ,and published Bons ideas his book aCrowds areresearchespeciallylikely to. leadto deindi-formalized popularized in 1895. the Le concept with reached Modern ofsocial others. psychological suggests that considerably from group to group, viduation a numberofgood description crowdscannotsimplistic, bepsychology, and the field(s) of study, then offer a clear and concise discussion of thewide audience AdolfHitlerand are said to have influenced Germanneither of theseearly for viewpointsisa reasons. First, crowds actions;.cause characterizednegative or uniformlyof the psychological behaviorthey as Le Bon described as wholly them.dictator andItaliandictator many BenitoMus-Experimentalareless likely research hasbe singled outthat and their lessany personally individualsforces to feelunderlying less accountablecrowd for solini. Because crowds have performedsenselesstodetermined almost feeltopic. Entries on mental illnesses address cause, diagnosis, treatment, and impact.and destructiveacts,crowdbothhistoricallybehavior remains and in modern individual couldbeinfluenced to thebehave crowd in commits. alsoTHE VIOLENT CROWDwaysfocus underthe for rightcircumstances.so onetimes, understanding extremely teristicresponsible any actuncharac Crowds- Violent and destructive acts are among the most studied also beengreatly becomerefined. thanss ownimportant for psychologists. perspectiveand attentionawayfrom theself,lessLeBonvalues in forms of crowd behavior. Many historical examples, from has internal standards Ratherinfluential. Thus,The term varying crowd in refers theircomplexityto a wide spectrum and theofintention human relying on, modern hispersonline concepts withof masstheoryand, deindividuationleadsa the French attest Revolution to the destructive of 1789 to power the Los of crowds. Angeles How riots-tosocialidentity hypnosisof ra -rather thanloss socialbecome focuseddraw primarily onsocial from identity Entries on theories or schools examine origin, history, and current status. Entries ongatherings, people join them. Somecrowdsby are casual tionality theory , researchers crowdsocial behaviorSocial to of 1992,withwhich peoplecometogether happenstance, identity theory to help developed particularly is important to ever, a crowd of deindividuated people will not become individual identityidentity. explain. WhenEuropeanpsy susceptible-onesin whichidentity a person, she becomesby TheandorJohnnorms,groupslished. In riots, for example,chologists originallyGroupT urnerinorthe a 1970s,standardsviolent unless a group normofthere violence is usually becomes an identifi estabsuch as tend a group to be of simple, pedestrians disorganized standing groups on aofsidewalk. people posits thatHenrisocialandindividuals expectations derive regarding an important appropriate part of behavior their influence.ajfelorganizations cover history and functions. Entries on psychological tests discussTheseanother and , becomeable precipitating event,sucha norm asofone violence. personsmashingIf a critical a,whodoother notknowagain. one Other crowds and will probably not see sense of such identityespeciallyform as one strictly fromsfamilysignificant, the togroupsthose, school,norms. the.religion the short allbe to con- windowofothersuch aslynchfollows mobs, suit, have a riot the ensues. normeach areconventionalized; Groupsto orwhichthey can belong. is time likelymass that introducestheallchosena commonactivitysuch positive crowd the In individualframe ev of-Some people crowds, immediatelydevelopment and applications. Biographical entries focus on the life, career, andpeople aparadehave ora sporting event, and express, excite as-Under sourcesmanyof circumstances,norm becomes whatever of violence previously established by their culture or byidentity gatherings,eryone else is doing.watching some crowds can become a become sourceonebeingoftothere is of some people evidence is viewed to suggest by authorities that thewaycanare purposive, choosing to be together for a commonnism throughofIt should be noted,psychological,that idenadeindi Furthers previous actions.ment in standard ways, such as cheering. Some crowdssource of identityas well.A key however mecha amid-group-the groupoften such highly as cohesive a rally or and political highly protest. organized. peoplecrowdsalwaysidentity become-do escalate , crowdwhich does not aleadcontributions of the individual. All terminology is explained for each article, and contextgoal,These groups aretity is deindividuation, italwaysthe ascendancy ofnotso-in which crowd a conflicts. For example, in 1998, European viduated, nor whenoverthe doesloss individualhebehavioror she is at all. For example, on mostpsychologists Clifford Stott and Stephen Reicher inter-of a personlead inthetos inhibitionsand sense ofengagecial identity identity in collective . Oftenpresence crowds 486 city and aboutnotconsiderthemselvestowalking be partgroup and streets,pedestriansof amillingdonotdo viewed policeofficersTheir analysis involved revealed with controlling that while apoliceriot inis provided to make the information accessible to general readers. Every entry ends draw a sense of identity from the people around them. inGreat Britain.theEugen Tarnow noted individualswide variations officers recognize or lessdangerousthat crowds members, contain subgroups they tend The to police treat of more thatthese dangerouswith a list of Sources for Further Study, as well as cross-references to related articleseffect of crowds two onphases of a crowd: an individualall group members expectations as potentially often dangerous. translate into com-can be best under-stood by identifyinga conformingphase.Duringthe individual officers negative toward all crowd members. By acting on phaseandpeople move freely about. At these times, indi-their negativephase, are not particularly aware of theirbative behavior expectations, they authority figures oftenoftenelicitwithin the set.viduals and are not particularly phase,membership the very behaviors violence and conflict escalation. relahope to prevent,whicharound however by,thoseindi- Much evidence in a crowd them.In the conforminginfluenced leads to increased suggests that there is viduals tionship aandexthey are in aapart, crowd and are they highly show aware high of levels the group of conformity of which.ofdeindividuation direct the tremity of between a crowd degrees actions.During this phase, the group norms heavilyMullen For example, in 1986, lynchings BrianAlso included in the final volume are eight appendixes, including: a Glossary; anCrowd behavior thesephases,sometimes influence be-His analysisof sixtyeachPsy individualchology & Behas behavior. Crowdsvioral Heal typicallyth alternate that occurred examined in the newspaper first half accounts of the twentieth present century in the.In South Africa, psychological research on these phe- lent protestssometimestween operatetwo an norm under example, of peacefulatacting a sportingcollectively event,, individually explicit. Formob, the more revealed violent that and the vicious morepeoplethe event. Similarly,annotated general Bibliography; a Website Directory; a list of Organizations andnomenahasbeenpresentedin murdertrials. People-resistance the 1979studyconductedtopics Leon Mann foundinthat analysisof twenty-one werecasesmorebeing tried for murder have argued that these psycholog sides. Theandpowerfansof individual rarely are ofprosocialsometimes lead interest. to escalated norms talking However was violencetoexperimentallytheir, when friendson points both aboutarescored of threatened suicideshis crowdswatchingicalpsychological help explain research their findings antisocial for these behavior purposes. The established aof hometeam, thecrowd psycholoand collectively,are likelyuseofprinciples gists Robert partby inJohnsona socialLeslie At these by responds -ashas sparked a great deal of controversy in the field.and group. Downing.Johnson spectatorsin crowd baiting (encouraging the person largemoments to jump toengagefrom aledge dark. or On bridge) a more when mundane crowds level, were sportsSupport; a Pharmaceutical List of generic and brand-name drugs grouped by their uses;Downing hadnot participants responding dress as individuals in either nursesbut as members apparelof a social THE APATHETIC CROWD Klan.and fans. and when are it more was aggressivedressed intheirwhen own wearing clothes. identical Any factor uni- While crowds are most infamous for inciting peopleor a white Some robegroup, fromThe dependwhileeach behaviorsgroup theon how rest that had stronglydid memberstheir not.individualthe Allcrowdofparticipants a crowdbecomesiden -perform will players than when anonymity seems to increase deindividua- hood like those worn by the Ku Klux formsa Biographical List of Psychologists with brief profiles of major figures; and a list ofto rashaction, sometimescrowdsinhibit behaviorReis-tity made known,thus the identity to deliveran electric a source that increases , thus also increasing of socialopportunity what behavioral shock to someonewhohadand thepreviouslyinsulted normsthesethem.factorsvary the likelihoodsearchon helping behaviorsuggeststhat helping.were thengivenamong group. Because become es-tion and the power of extreme of social behavior identity.tablished much less likely to occur when there are many peopleAmong participants wearing the robes, those whothosewereNotable Court Cases that mark important legal milestones in the history of psychology.watching.well-established phenomenon, knownbynot identified delivered these influenced levelsthan 487the bystander This effect, was researched andBibbdescribedaswho were. more Presumably strongly higher people bydeindividuatedshock were and and thusthe violent cue ofAmerican psychologists John Darleyoverhear Latan.In a typical suchasexperiment, someone falling participants off a ladder, and research- an acci- their costume. Unidentified,Of those in nurses deindividuated uniforms,theparticipants oppositeAt the back of every volume is a Category Index divided into sixty-one groups, and adent, theyarebutpeopleare significantly was observed.intense shocks than identifiedpartici by- ers observe whether participants go to help. Most peoplegave much lessinfluenced less likelywhen pants Theythem,werealsobutinmore this case the cues promot-help when to helpalone, they are with a crowd of other the cues did. around strongly Personages Index and a Subject Index are additionally included in Volume 5.people. Darley andLatan argued that bystanders inis, ed prosocial action.crowd experiencea diffusion of responsibilitythata BIBLIOGRAPHYeach individualfeels less personally responsible to actbecause each assumes that someone else will do so. Borch, Christian. Crowd Theory and the Management A must-have encyclopedic review of all things psychological, Psychology & Behavioral manyThis phenomenon it is exacerbated by the fact that inof Crowds: 61.5/6 A ControversialRelationship. Current situations, is unclearwhetheranaevent is an Sociology(2013): 584601. Print.emergencyan adult dragging screaming Borch, Christian. The Politics of Crowds: An Alternative child out of.Faor store example, could be a kidnapper making awayHistory of Sociology. New York: Cambridge UP, 2012. Health is written for the non-specialist with either an academic or clinical interest in anywith a child or atheparent reactions respondingto in a tantrum. Print. A. M. Crowd Psychology in South AfricanBystanders observeof others the crowd Coleman,HEALTHto help them determine what the appropriatecourse ofMurder Trials. American Psychologist 46.10 (1992):actionis in anambiguous situation.However , because is 107179.typically John, Print.of the wide range of topics in the broad scope of human activity and understanding thatthe situation isambiguous,each individual Drury, and Clifford Stott, eds. Crowds in the Bywaitingforsomeone21st Century: Perspectives from Contemporary Social equally confused and unsure.the Psychologists call this Science. New York: Benewick, 2013. eds.Print.The Crowd in elsetheyto act, think bystanders nothingconveyis wrong. impressionto others Gaskell,G., and R.Routledge,comes under the umbrella of psychology.that thoughotherspluralistic areignorance. Peopleassumethat LeContemporary The London: A Sage, 1987. Print.phenomenon exactlythe same Bon, Gustave. Britain.Crowd: Studyof the Popular evenbehaving infor a-Mind. London: Unwin, 1896. Print.way as themselves (not acting), they are doing an becomeMcPhail, Clark.Myth of the Madding Crowd. New differentso emergency). Thus, reason a social (knowing norm the ofinactionsituation can is not also York: de Gruyter The, 1991. Print.May 2023 | Five Volumes; 4,400 Pages | Print ISBN: 978-1-63700-463-0 | Library Price: $495 established in a crowd. Mann, L. TheJournal Baiting ofCrowd and of ThreatenedSuicide.Personality in EpisodesSocial PsychologyTHE PROSOCIAL CROWD violence and destruc- 41.4 (1981): 7039. Print. Cambridge: Cambridge for greatReicher, S. CrowdBehaviour. Despitethe potential that crowd gather behavior do so is quite quite uneventfully positive and. UP, 2008., S. The Print. Crowd Century: Reconciling Practical tion, most crowdsSee Also: Careers in Psychology & Behavioral Health, pg. 91 Further, sometimes Reicher with TheoreticalFailure.BritishJournal of prosocial. Success 53553. Print. tion can lead Research to prosocial shows behavior that sometimes. For example, deindividua nonvio Social Psychology 35.4 (1996): 488GET ONLINE ACCESS(800) 221-1592 WITH YOUR PRINT BUY! www.salempress.com2023-467 Salem 2024 Catalog R8.indd 123 2023-12-19 2:12 PM'