b'Health PSYCHOLOGY 125Psychology &NEW! Spring 2023 BEST SELLER!Behavioral HealthFIFTH EDITION PSYCHOLOGY Fifth Edition & BEHAVIORAL SALEM HEALTH Edited by Paul Moglia HEALTHWhether you are just starting out in psychology or doing some quick fact checking,a good subject encyclopedia can be a great tool. There are many out there.Salem Health: Psychology & Behavioral Health is among the best. Articles are writtenVolume 1 clearly and structured in a way that will be helpful to students, providing the type of psychology, and abstract and key concepts. An excellent addition for academic and public libraries.ARBAThis set is easy to navigate and provides information suitable for undergraduate students across disciplines but is still accessible for general readers hoping tofind out more information about psychology.BooklistThis five-volume encyclopedia covers the history of psychology as an experimentaland social science, as an applied health discipline, as a profession, and as a locusfor the panoply of preeminent contributors in the field. This set discusses behaviorism, cognition, perception, cognitive behavioral psychology, psychodynamic psychology, object relations theory, family systems therapy, Gestalt therapy, the biological bases of human behavior, sexuality, personality theory, and comparative therapies of treatment. FREE Online AccessAlso included are mental and behavioral health diagnoses, disorders, and syndromes,NEW!FREEand how they are assessed. Essays also address how culture, ethnicity, and gender affect psychological theory and beliefs, treatment outcomes, and acquiring self-identity. There are essays focused on individual assessment and evaluation instruments includingCrowd behavior Psychology & Behavioral Healththeir strengths and limitations.Crowd behavior Because crowds and differ somuchthereinistheiralsocomposition,organization, purpose, considerableType of psychology: Social psychology variationin typical behavior. Popular andschol-Crowd behavior is the study of how the behavior of peoplearly attention has tended crowd to focus problematic. on situations In these inwhichcrowd behavior isoftenconsidered has an unusual problem to solvesitu- This updated fifth edition includes over 700 articles.All entries have been reviewed by in groups become differs much from more thatoffocused individuals. on their People social in identity crowds ations, the crowd example, how to respond to a hostile police often rapidlyforthan on their individual bytheidentity norms. As result,they areforce. The occurrence of riots andviolenceare not attestssolvedto themuch more influencedofthea group.fact thatthese sorts ofproblems alwaysour team of medical experts to ensure that the most up-to-date information on disorders,KeyBystander constructivelyby crowds. of It shouldbeinpositivenoted, howeverthat crowds are ways as,Concepts effect well.capablebehavingDeindividualismtreatments, drugs, and therapies are included.Dozens of new entries have also beenDiffusion UNDERLYING PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSESSocial identity of responsibility theory Early theories of crowd behavior hypothesized or thementallythat un- INTRODUCTION ruly crowds were made up ofperspective assumed that criminalsadded to the set.Essays range from one to eight pages and address how culture,Crowds are groups of people of who crowd are behavior together examines for short deficient. Proponentsof thisperiods of time. crowd behavior of people could in be the explained crowd and bythethat individual certain kinds per- sonalitiesthe actions thatThepeople study in a crowd perform and howof people were more likely to be found analysis inofacrowd.crowdbeLe- ethnicity, and gender affect psychological theory and beliefs.thesebehavior earlya focus twentieth of scholarly cen- Bon provideding alone. actions Crowd differ behavior from the became and of individuals act-havior, recognizing a more that psychological evenpeopleunrulyofcrowd. highHeintelligence believedthought in the latenineteenth western Europe. could become members of anturiesincriminologistScipio turmoil in was among the that crowds to be transform rationalpeople,and putting obliterating them in their a hypnotic, normalItalian reactiontosocial SigheleabilitiesEssays begin with standard information, including any relevant dates, the type offirst to write about crowdbehavior; ofcrowdFrench psychology psycholo-,highly suggestible state. Le Bon vioral Heal of crowd- Crowd behaviordisapprovedthgist Gustave Lepopularizedthe concept with his bookbehavior inPsy all forms;chology & Beha consequently, in his book he paint.Bon, the founderformalizedand ed an extremely negative picture of crowd behaviorThe Crowd, published in 1895. Le Bons ideas reached a of others. psychologicalthatto group,Crowds areresearchespeciallysuggests likely to lead viduation First, crowdsto deindi cause- Modernsociala numberofgooddescription considerablyfromas wholly group negative crowdscannotsimplistic, bepsychology, and the field(s) of study, then offer a clear and concise discussion of thewide audience and are said to have influenced Germanneitherof theseearly for viewpointsisa reasons.behavior. theycharacterizedor uniformlyof the psychologicalforcesunderlyingcrowd for their actions; as Le Bon described them.individualsto feelless accountable dictatorAdolf Hitlerand Italian dictator many Benito Mus-Experimentalareless likely researchhasdetermined almostsolini. Because crowds have performedsenselessto be singled outthat and and destructive acts, both historically and in modernindividual couldinfluencedthe crowdfeel lessany Crowds- personally also THE VIOLENT CROWDresponsible any behave uncharacunderattentionthe forawayactcircumstances. theself,in commits.so oneBontopic. Entries on mental illnesses address cause, diagnosis, treatment, and impact.times, understanding crowd behavior remains extremelyteristic waysfocusbe right tofrom Lethanss ownvalues in Violent and destructive acts are among the most studied important for psychologists. perspectiveand has alsosocialbeenstandardsgreatly hypnosis becomerefined. Ratherinfluential. Thus, aforms of crowd behavior. Many historical examples, from The term crowd refers to a wide spectrum of humanrelying on hisline concepts internalwith ofmass theory and ,lessdeindividuationleadsthe French Revolution of 1789 to the Los Angeles riots identity loss of ra-Entries on theories or schools examine origin, history, and current status. Entries ongatherings, people complexity and the intention tionality theory, researchersdraw primarily on social from identitysocial rather-than of 1992, attest of deindividuated people will not become with whichvaryingpeopleinjoin their them. Some crowdsare casual identity , theorymodernindividualpersonbecomeWhen behavior ever, a crowdto the destructive power of crowds. How-to tohelpidentity explain .focusedidentity.Socialis important tocrowd social identitya person, she becomesEuropeansusceptibleones come togetherbyhappenstance, chologists HenriTheandor developed by particularlypsy standards to violentoriginally lished.Inunless riots, aforgroup example, normofthere violence is usually becomes an identifi estabsuchinaswhicha group of pedestrians standingon a sidewalk. social influence.GroupT urnerinorthe a 1970s,ajfel Johnnorms,groups organizations cover history and functions. Entries on psychological tests discussThese tendto besimple, crowds are conventionalized; posits , become able precipitatingwho do notknowone another disorganized and willgroupsprobably ofnotpeople see senseofthat identity especiallyandindividuals expectations from significant,thederive groups regarding animportantand to which the appropriate individualtheypartofbelong. behaviortheiris likelyto con-window, that introduces event,sucha norm asofone violence. personsmashingIf a critical aeach other again. Othera common activity, such as Groups suchform as one strictlys family to those, school, norms. or religion In the can short all timebe whatever.frame ev of-Somethe people aparadehave allchosenevent, and express excite- positive manyof circumstances, the norm canbecomes amassofother people crowds, immediately such aslynchfollows bymobs, their have culturewatchingora sportingUnder sources some crowd crowds becomeof violence previously established suit, a riot the ensues.normor by identity gatherings,development and applications. Biographical entries focus on the life, career, andsource oferyone else is doing. mecha amid- the groupIt should be noted, sourceonebeingofto key howeverment in standard ways, such to as cheering. Some crowds nism throughofascrowds psychological,that idengroup-Furthers previous actions.are purposive,choosing betogetherfor a common identity well.Abecomealead become-adeindipeopledoesnot always tity whichalways lead tos inhibitions , there is some evidence to suggestby authorities that thewaycancontributions of the individual. All terminology is explained for each article, and contextgoal, such highly as cohesive a rally or and political highly protest. organized. These groups areviduated, nor whenoverthe doesloss individualhebehavior at all.the ascendancy ofnotso-in which crowd a crowd conflicts. of people Forisexample, viewedin 1998, Reicher European inter- often andissense deindividuation,itora person . Oftendo escalate of identity of she is presence crowds cial identity identityengage in collectivein the For example, on mostpsychologists Clifford Stott and Stephen486 city streets, pedestrians walkingaboutdraw a sensethemselvesof identity from to be the part people of agroup and andmillingdonotdo viewed policeofficersTheir analysis involved revealed with controlling that while apoliceriot inis provided to make the information accessible to general readers. Every entry ends not consider noted that around them. Great Britain.Eugen Tarnowvariations officers recognize that crowds members, contain subgroups they tendofto more treatthe effect ofthesecan widebest under in-dangerous PSYCHOLOGYcrowds two onphases all group members or less dangerous as potentially often dangerous. translate The into police com- individuals of a crowd:be an individualwith a list of Sources for Further Study, as well as cross-references to related articlesstood by identifying freely phase. Duringtheindividualofficers negative expectationsacting on phase and a conforming about. At thesetimes,their negative expectations,phase,peopleare notmoveaware of theirindi-bative behavior toward all crowd authority members. figures By oftenoftenelicitwithin the set.vidualsandparticularlyphase,membership the very behaviors they hope to prevent, which relain a crowd them.are not particularly influenced leadsMuch to increased violence andthat conflict around In the conforming however by,thoseindi-tionship evidence degree suggests ofdeindividuationthereescalation.is a and exviduals in a crowd are highly aware of the group of which. direct the they are a part, andtheythegroupshowhighnorms levels of conformity tremity of between a crowd newspapers actions. F accountsor example, ofsixtyin 1986, lynchings BrianDuringPsy thisphase, heavily influenceMullen occurred examined in the first half of the twentieth century. Also included in the final volume are eight appendixes, including: a Glossary; anCrowd behavior each individualchology & Behavioral HealCrowds typicallythcollectively be-,thattween these twosbehavior acting alternate His analysisphases, . sometimesmob, the more revealed violent that and the vicious morepeoplethe event. present Similarly in the,In South Africa, psychological research on these phe- lent protestssometimes operate under individually an explicit talking. For normviolenceexample,to their ofpeacefulfriendson ataboth sporting aboutevent, Leon Mann found in his analysisof being tried for murder have argued that these psycholog sides. Theandpowerfansof individual rarely are ofprosocialsometimes lead interest. to escalatednormsconducted the was experimentally - topicscrowdswatchingannotated general Bibliography; a Website Directory; a list of Organizations andnomenahasbeenpresentedin murdertrials. People-resistancethe 1979 study However when pointsare scored, as of threatened twenty-one werecasesmoreestablished team, crowd,byresponds psycholo collectively likely to engage suicides in crowd that baiting (encouraging the person icalbehavior purposes. Thegists Robert partby inJohnson participants respondingaof home dressinDowning.apparelof a social are to jump psychological help explain research their findings antisocial for inthesethe field.andLeslie asgroup.At these nurses Johnsonmoments and spectatorsand when from it was a ledge dark. or On bridge) a more when mundane crowds level, were sports largeuseofprinciples a socialSupport; a Pharmaceutical List of generic and brand-name drugs grouped by their uses;has sparked a great deal of controversy Downing hadnotindividualsbut as memberswillplayerseitherTHE APATHETIC CROWD or a white robegroup, fromThe andeachfans. behaviors hood group likethat thosehad memberstheir worn individual bytheof aKucrowd iden Klux -performforms than arewhenmoreaggressivedressed intheirwhen own wearing clothes. identical Any factor uni- Klan. Somea Biographical List of Psychologists with brief profiles of major figures; and a list ofWhile crowds are most infamousfor incitingpeopletity made known,thus depend while identityamongopportunityon howdid not. the All crowdparticipants becomesbecome a source es- that increases anonymity seems identity. , thus also increasingthe rest stronglyto increase deindividua-to rashaction, sometimescrowds inhibitbehaviorRe is-shock to someonewhohadand thepreviouslyBecause norms vary tion and the power of extreme of social behaviorwere then giventhewhatdeliveran electricof socialtobehavioralthem.factors the likelihoodsearchon helping behaviorsuggeststhat helping.tablishedgroup. insulted thesemuch less likely to occur when there are many peopleAmong participants wearing the robes, those whothosewere 487Notable Court Cases that mark important legal milestones in the history of psychology.watching.well-established phenomenon, knownbyas notidentifieddelivered these higher people shock were the deindividuatedthe bystander This effect, was researched and described who were. PresumablylevelsthanIn a typical experiment,Johnparticipantsand Bibb an acci-theirviolent cue ofAmericanpsychologists Darleyoverhear Latan. and thus costume. moreOfstrongly thoseinfluencedin nurses uniforms, bythe opposite At the back of every volume is a Category Index divided into sixty-one groups, and adent, theyarebutpeople , andpeople-was observed. Unidentified, deindividuated partici- identified participants ers observe suchwhetheras someone participants falling off go aladderto help. are Most research gave much less intense shocks thaninfluenced by pants did. They were also more strongly help when to helpalone, they aresignificantlythe cues around them, but in this case the cues promot-less likelywhenwith abystanders acrowd of other Personages Index and a Subject Index are additionally included in Volume 5.people. Darley and a Latan argued that ined prosocial action.each individual feels less personally responsible toactis, BIBLIOGRAPHYcrowd experience diffusion of responsibilitythatbecause each assumes that someone else will do so. exacerbated by the fact that inBorch, Christian. Crowd Theory and the Management CurrentmanyThis phenomenonisisunclear of Crowds: ARelationship.A must-have encyclopedic review of all things psychological, Psychology & Behavioral situations,it an adult whetheranaevent is an Borch, Christian. Controversial 584601. of Crowds: Print. An Alternative emergencydragging screaming Sociology 61.5/6 The (2013): Politics HEALTHchild out of.Faor store example, could be a kidnapper making awayHistory of Sociology. New York: Cambridge UP, 2012. Health is written for the non-specialist with either an academic or clinical interest in anywith a child or a parent responding to a tantrum.Print. A. M. Crowd Psychology in South AfricanBystanders anof others in the crowd ofColeman, T rials.American Psychologist 46.10 (1992):to help them observe determine the reactions what the appropriate However ,course because Murder Print. ambiguous, action is inisambiguoussituation. 107179.of the wide range of topics in the broad scope of human activity and understanding thatthe situation typically each individual is DruryJohn, andClifford Stott,eds. CrowdsinSocial theequally andunsure. forsomeone 21st,Century:P erspectives fromContemporaryelse toact,confused bystandersconveytheBywaitingimpressionto others that they think nothing is wrong. Psychologists call thisScience. New York: Routledge, 2013. Print.The Crowd in comes under the umbrella of psychology.phenomenon pluralistic ignorance. People assumesame that LeContemporary The London: eds.1987. of Print.Gaskell, G., and R. Benewick, even though others are behaving in exactly the Bon, Gustave. Britain.Crowd:A Sage, the Popular Studyway as themselves (not acting), the situation they are is doing not an become emer sofor a-Mind. London:1896. Print.different McPhail, Clark. The Unwin, Myth of the Madding Crowd. New gency). Thus, reason a social (knowing norm of inaction can also York: de Gruyter, 1991. Print.April 2023 | Five Volumes; 4,400 Pages | Print ISBN: 978-1-63700-463-0 | Library Price: $495 established in a crowd. Mann, L. TheJournal Baiting ofCrowd and of ThreatenedSuicide.Personality in EpisodesSocial PsychologyTHE PROSOCIAL CROWD violence and destruc- 41.4 (1981): 7039. Print. Cambridge: Cambridge for greatReicher, S. CrowdBehaviour. Despitethe potential that crowd gather behavior do so is quite quite uneventfully positive and. UP, 2008., S. The Print. Crowd Century: Reconciling Practical tion, most crowdsSee Also: Careers in Psychology & Behavioral Health, pg. 98 Further, sometimes Reicher with TheoreticalFailure. British Journal of prosocial. Success tion can lead Research to prosocial shows behavior that sometimes. For example, deindividua nonvio Social Psychology 35.4 (1996): 53553. Print.488GET ONLINE ACCESS(800) 221-1592 WITH YOUR PRINT BUY! www.salempress.com2022-480 Salem Catalog 2023 R7.indd 125 2022-12-28 11:17 AM'