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Articles
American Indian Movement
Carlisle Indian School
General Allotment Act
Indian
Indian Civil Rights Act
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
Nunavut Territory
Sand Creek Massacre
Trail of Tears
Tribal Courts

Other Elements
Index
Table of Contents

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Essays are well-written at the high school level and try to appraise difficult issues from both points of view (American Indian vs. government). . . .If this set does not duplicate what you already have, high school libraries will want to own it as a valuable addition to the history of the American Indian. Excellent appendices, such as a list of all the tribes by region, maps, an index and bibliography, all add to its usefulness.
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American Indian History contains concise, factually correct information that would benefit public, school, and undergraduate libraries, especially if the library owns the additional volumes in this series.
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MultiCultural Review  

American Indian History
Editor: Carole A. Barrett
August 2002 · 2 volumes · 820 pages · 6"x9"


ISBN: 978-0-89356-063-8
Print List Price: $120


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American Indian History
Index

A
AAIA
. See Association on American Indian Affairs
Aboriginal Action Plan (1998), 1
Aboriginal Canadians, 1
. See also First Nations
Aboriginal peoples (term), 494
Abourezk Commission. See American Indian Policy Review Commission
Acoma, Battle of (1598-1599), 2-4
Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico, 615
Adams-Onís Treaty (1819), 507, 548
Adena tradition, 433
Adobe Walls, Battles of (1864, 1874), 4-5, 474
Agriculture, 433, 437, 448, 450
AIDA
. See American Indian Defense Association
AIHEC
. See American Indian Higher Education Consortium
AIM
. See American Indian Movement
AIPRC
. See American Indian Policy Review Commission
Akansa people, 250
Akwesasne Mohawk reservation, 121
Alabama
. See Geographical Index
Alaska
. See Geographical Index
Alaska Federation of Natives, 7
Alaska Native Brotherhood (est. 1912), 5-6, 8
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (1971), 6-10, 553
Alaska Native Sisterhood (est. 1915), 5-6
Albany Congress (1754), 11-15, 163, 308, 455
Albany Group, 310
Alcatraz Island, California, 615
Alcatraz Island occupation (1969-1971), 15-17, 540
Alcoholism, 460
. Handsome Lake, 102
Aleutian Islands, 257
Algonquian peoples, 157, 236-237, 269, 305, 307, 409, 421, 446, 566, 572
Alkali Ridge, Utah, 615
All-Pueblo Council (est. 1922), 17-18
Allotment system (1887-1934), 18-20, 74-75, 288, 292, 364
. See also General Allotment Act
Altithermal period, 440
American Indian (term), 21-22, 177, 382
American Indian Defense Association (est. 1923), 22-23, 481
American Indian Higher Education Consortium (est. 1972), 23-24
American Indian Movement (est. 1968), 25-26, 140, 345, 415, 540, 601, 603
American Indian Policy Review Commission (est. 1975), 27-28
American Indian Religious Freedom Act (1978), 29-32, 297, 351, 386, 482
American Indian Trust Reform Management Act (1994), 225
American Revolution (1775-1783), 272
. Cherokees in, 96
. Iroquois in, 151, 308-312
. Senecas in, 102
Amerind (term), 22, 33, 177
Anasazi culture, 452
ANB
. See Alaska Native Brotherhood
ANCSA. See Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
Angel Mounds, Indiana, 615
Animism, 563
Antiquities Act (1906), 384
Apache Wars (1861-1886), 34-37, 287
Archaic culture, 53
Archaic tradition, 447
Arctic
. See Geographical Index
Arctic Small Tool tradition, 428
Arizona
. See Geographical Index
Arkansas
. See Geographical Index
Articles of Agreement (1730), 38-40
Assembly of First Nations, 232, 362, 587
Association on American Indian Affairs, 23
Athapaskan-speaking people, 437
Awatovi Ruins, Arizona, 615
Aztalan, Wisconsin, 616
Aztec Ruins, New Mexico, 616

B
Bacon's Rebellion (1676), 40-42
Bad Axe, Battle of (1832), 63
Bagot Commission (1842), 230
Band (term), 562
Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, 616
Bannock War (1878), 43-45, 286
Bat Cave, New Mexico, 616
Bear Butte, South Dakota, 617
Bear River Campaign (1863), 45-46, 70
Bear River Massacre Site, Idaho, 617
Beaver Wars (1642-1685), 46-49
Bering Strait migrations (c. 10,000), 50-54; map, 52
BIA
. See Bureau of Indian Affairs
Big and Little Petroglyph Canyons, California, 617
Big Bead Mesa, New Mexico, 617
Bill of Rights, 194
Billy Bowlegs' War (1855-1856), 510
Bison; hunting, 439, 470; slaughter, 55-59, 473, 500
Black Hawk War (1832), 60-64, 323
Blood Run Site, Iowa, 618
Boarding schools, 64-68
Boldt decision (1974), 571
Borinquen, 583
Bosque Redondo, 341, 391
Boudinot v. United States (1871), 92-93
Bozeman Trail War (1866-1868), 69-72
British Columbia
. See Geographical Index
British North America Act (1867), 178, 550
Buffalo
. See Bison
Bureau of Indian Affairs (est. 1824), 20, 25, 73-74, 107, 204-205, 214,
220, 281, 293, 315, 364, 387, 415, 481, 517, 528
Burke Act (1906), 20, 75-76, 290
Bursum bill (1922), 17
Bush, George Herbert Walker, 200

C
Cabin Creek, Battle of (1864), 100
Cahokia, Illinois, 443, 618
California
. See Geographical Index
California Indian Self-Reliance Initiative (2000), 202
California missions (1769-1824), 76-79
Camas Meadows Battle Sites, Idaho, 618
Camp Charlotte Agreement (1774), 349
Camp Grant Massacre, 36
Canada
. See Geographical Index
Canada-Ontario Indian Reserve Lands Agreement (1924), 486
Canadian Metis Society (est. 1968), 117
Canarsee, 355
Canoe, role of, 227
Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, 341, 618
Carlisle Indian School (est. 1879), 66, 80-81, 476, 619
Carrington Osage Village Sites, Missouri, 619
Casa Grande Ruins, Arizona, 619
Casa Malpais Site, Arizona, 619
Cataldo Mission, Idaho, 620
Caughnawaga Mohawk, 249
Cayuse War (1847-1850), 82-83
CERT
. See Council of Energy Resource Tribes
Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, 620
Cherokee, 560
Cherokee Advocate, 91
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831), 85
Cherokee Phoenix (1828-1839), 84, 87-91
Cherokee Tobacco case (1871), 92-93, 288
Cherokee tribe, trade with, 241
Cherokee War (1761), 94-97
Cherokee War (1776), 272
Chief Joseph Battleground of Bear's Paw, Montana, 620
Chief Plenty Coups Home, Montana, 620
Chiefdom (term), 562
Chippewa tribe, 550
Christianization, 65, 218, 229, 242, 249, 262, 611
. See also Franciscan missionaries; Jesuit missionaries;
Missions and missionaries; Religion; Religious freedom
Chucalissa Site, Tennessee, 621
Cíbola, Seven Cities of, 465, 610
Ciguayan, 583
Civil Rights Act (1964), 206
Civil Rights movement, 194
Civil War (1861-1865), 97-100, 282, 316, 340, 500
Civilization Fund Act (1819), 65, 275
Clover Site, West Virginia, 621
Clovis culture, 54
Clovis points, 430, 439
Cobell v. Norton, 225
Cochise people, 449
Cockarouses, 422
Code of Handsome Lake, 101-104
Code talkers, 105-108
Colleges (tribal), 24
Colliflower v. Garland (1964), 109
Colonialism
. See Dutch colonialism; English colonialism; French colonialism; Indian-white relations;
Norse colonialism; Russian colonialism; Spanish colonialism; Swedish colonialism
Colorado
. See Geographical Index
Connecticut
. See Geographical Index
Constitution Act of 1867
. See British North America Act
Contract schools, 65
Corn, introduction of, 433, 442, 451
Coronado National Memorial, Arizona, 621
Coufal Site, Nebraska, 621
Council of Energy Resource Tribes (est. 1975), 109-110
Courts
. See Courts of Indian Offenses; Tribal courts
Courts of Indian Offenses, 205, 561
Cree tribe, 550
Creek National Capitol, Oklahoma, 622
Creek War (1813-1814), 110-114, 149
Crown Lands Protection Acts (1837), 230
Curtis Act (1898), 290, 560

D
Dakotas
. See Geographical Index
Dancing Rabbit Creek, Treaty of (1830), 115-116, 302, 546
Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty Site, Mississippi, 622
Danger Cave, Utah, 622
Dawes Commission, 316
Dawes Severalty Act
. See General Allotment Act
Declaration of First Nations (1981), 116-117
Delgamuukw v. British Columbia (1997), 117-119
Dene group, 552
Dene-Metis Land Claims Agreement, 554
Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (est. 1967), 119-121, 182, 497, 587
Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Shareholders, 363
Determined Residents United for Mohawk Sovereignty (est. 1974), 121-122
DIAND
. See Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Discrimination in favor of Native Americans, 206
Diseases, 125-129, 204, 240; Quebec, 48; in schools, 66
. See also Epidemics
Doak's Stand, Treaty of (1820), 115, 545
Doaksville, Treaty of (1837), 547
Dorset tradition, 428
DRUMS
. See Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Shareholders
and Determined Residents United for Mohawk Sovereignty
Duro v. Reina (1984-1990), 122-123, 298
Dutch colonialism, 234-236, 270; Manhattan Island purchase, 353-356

E
Earth lodges, 443
Eastern seaboard
. See Geographical Index
Economic development, 205
Education, 482; boarding schools, 64-68; early twentieth century, 204;
higher, 23-24, 296; Indian Act of 1989, 183; Iroquois comments, 239; nineteenth century, 80-81, 289
Edwardsville, Treaty of (1819), 323
Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa, 622
El Cuartelejo, Kansas, 623
El Morro, New Mexico, 623
Eleventh Amendment, 202
Elk v. Wilkins (1884), 123, 190, 289
Emerald Mound, Mississippi, 623
Empire (term), 562
Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon et al. v. Smith (1990), 32, 124-125
Encomienda system, 261, 466, 584, 612
Endangered Species Act (1973), 558
Enfranchisement Acts (1869), 231
English colonialism, 237-244; Canada, 226-233; vs. Spanish, 263
Epidemics, 125-129, 240, 418, 466; Aleuts, 259; California, 266; Canada, 229
. See also Diseases
Etowah, Georgia, 623
Ex parte Crow Dog (1883), 130-131, 289, 352

F
Factory system of trade regulation (1796), 275
Fallen Timbers, Battle of (1794), 131-135, 144, 274, 333, 573
Fallen Timbers Battlefield, Ohio, 624
Federal Acknowledgment Program, 136
Federally recognized tribes, 136, 564
Fifteen Principles (1983), 137
Finn colonists, 270
First Nations
. See Aboriginal Canadians
Fish-ins, 138-140, 381, 571
Five Civilized Tribes, 98, 290; during Civil War, 282
Florida; Franciscans, 262
. See also Geographical Index
Folsom points, 439
Folsom Site, New Mexico, 624
Folsom tradition, 447
Fort Ancient, Ohio, 624
Fort Atkinson Treaty (1853), 140
Fort Belknap, Texas, 624
Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, 624
Fort Greenville Treaty (1795), 135, 140-144, 155, 274, 398, 525
Fort Harmar Treaty (1789), 154
Fort Harrison, Treaty of (1819), 323
Fort Industry, Treaty of (1805), 334
Fort Jackson, Treaty of
. See Horseshoe Bend Treaty
Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851, 69, 140, 145-146
Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, 147-149, 330
Fort Mims, Battle of (1813), 149-151
Fort Neoheroka, Battle of (1713), 568
Fort Osage, Missouri, 625
Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming, 625
Fort Richardson, Texas, 625
Fort Robinson and Red Cloud Agency, Nebraska, 625
Fort Shantok, Connecticut, 626
Fort Sill, Oklahoma, 626
Fort Stanwix Treaty (1768), 347, 419, 459, 572
Fort Stanwix Treaty (1784), 141, 151-154, 397
Fort Thompson Mounds, South Dakota, 626
Fort Washita, Oklahoma, 626
Fort Wayne Treaty (1809), 155-156, 463, 527, 537
Fourteenth Amendment, 190
Fox Wars (1714-1741), 156-159, 251
Franciscan missionaries, 262, 465, 611
French and Indian War (1754-1763), 94, 160-164, 252, 272, 403, 416, 455, 485
French colonialism, 243, 245-253; Canada, 226-233
Friends of the Indian organizations, 18, 165-166, 171
Frog Lake Massacre (1885), 490
Frontier, closing of, 601
Fur trade, 46-49, 166-168, 227, 458, 469; Dutch, 235, 356;
English, 241; French, 248, 251; impact on Iroquois nations, 307; Russian, 257

G
Gadsden Purchase (1854), 169
Gambling
. See Gaming
Gaming, 200-202, 298
Gatlin Site, Arizona, 626
General Allotment Act (1887), 18, 73, 75, 165, 169-173, 190, 225, 289, 292,
336, 364, 378, 480, 528
. See also Allotment system
Georgia
. See Geographical Index
Ghost Dance religion, 101, 287, 598, 605
Gift-giving, 243
Gila Cliff Dwellings, New Mexico, 627
GOON
. See Guardians of the Oglala Nation
Graham Cave, Missouri, 627
Grand Canyon, Arizona, 627
Grave Creek Mound, West Virginia, 627
Great Basin
. See Geographical Index
Great Bend culture, 443
Great Depression (1930's), 67, 293, 481
Great Plains
. See Geographical Index
Greenland
. See Geographical Index
Greenville, Treaty of (1795), 333, 461
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of (1848), 34, 169, 174-177, 524; maps, 175
Guardians of the Oglala Nation, 603
Gunther Island Site 67, California, 628
Gwich'in Final Agreement (1991), 554

H
Habeas corpus, 109, 194, 288, 520
Handsome Lake, Code of, 101-104
Hard Labor, Treaty of (1768), 459
Hardaway Site, North Carolina, 628
Haskell Institute, Kansas, 628
Haudenosaunee, 305
Hawikuh, New Mexico, 628
Healing v. Jones (1962), 387
Health care, 203
Hell Gap, Wyoming, 439
Hohokam culture, 451
Holly Bluff Site, Mississippi, 629
Hopewell culture, 305
Hopewell tradition, 433, 442
Hopi, 3
Horner Site, Wyoming, 629
Horseshoe Bend, Battle of (1814), 274
Horseshoe Bend Treaty (1814), 113, 176-177
Hubbell Trading Post, Arizona, 629
Hudson's Bay Company, 229, 469, 550
Huff Archaeological Site, North Dakota, 629
Human immunodeficiency virus, 129

I
"I will fight no more, forever" speech (Chief Joseph), 395
ICC
. See Indian Claims Commission
Icelandic sagas, 254
Idaho
. See Geographical Index
Igloos, 455
IGRA
. See Indian Gaming Regulatory Act
IHS
. See Indian Health Service
IITC
. See International Indian Treaty Council
Illinois
. See Geographical Index
Independent Oglala Nation, 605
Indian (term), 177-178, 382
Indian Act of 1868, 119, 231
Indian Act of 1876, 119, 178-180, 181, 486
Indian Act of 1951, 67, 180, 181-182
Indian Act of 1989, 182-184, 487
Indian Appropriation Act (1871), 92, 184-187, 555, 570
Indian Bill of Rights
. See Indian Civil Rights Act
Indian Child Welfare Act (1978), 188-189, 465
Indian Citizenship Act (1924), 171, 189-192, 376, 517, 595
Indian Civil Rights Act (1968), 122, 193-195, 296, 383, 465
Indian Claims Commission (est. 1946), 196-198, 339, 481, 558, 597
Indian Claims Limitation Act (1982), 297
Indian Education Acts (1972, 1978), 198-199
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (1988), 200-202, 298
Indian Health Service (est. 1954), 203-204
Indian New Deal (1933-1945), 23, 107, 204-205, 206, 214, 481
Indian Offenses Act (1883), 205-206, 288, 561
Indian preference (est. 1933), 206-207
Indian Removal Act (1830), 207-212, 275, 278, 506, 545; map, 211
Indian Reorganization Act (1934), 6, 20, 23, 74, 76, 173, 204,
213-217, 290, 292, 377, 401, 529, 561
Indian Rights Association (est. 1882), 218-219, 338, 365, 378
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (1975), 27, 74, 219-220, 482
Indian Vocational Training Act (1957), 295
Indian-white relations; Canadian, 226-234; Dutch colonial, 48, 234-236;
English colonial, 237-244; French colonial, 47, 245-253; Norse, 254-256;
Russian colonial, 257-260; Spanish colonial, 260-267; Swedish colonial, 268-271;
U.S., 1775-1830, 272-277; U.S., 1831-1870, 278-284;
U.S., 1871-1933, 284-291; U.S., 1934-2002, 292-299
Indiana. See Geographical Index
Indian's Friend, The (National Indian Association), 378
Indians of All Tribes, 16
Influenza, 126
Interior, U.S. Department of the, 73
Intermarriage; English, 243; Metis, 228; Russian, 259
International Indian Treaty Council (est. 1974), 300-301
Inuvialuit Final Agreement (1984), 553
ION
. See Independent Oglala Nation
IRA
. See Indian Removal Act; Indian Reorganization Act; Indian Rights Association
Irish Potato Famine (Native American aid during), 302-304
Iroquoian-speaking people, 433
Iroquois Confederacy, 243, 304-308; American Revolution, 272;
map, 306; U.S. Congress meeting (1776), 309-312

J
J. R. Williams (steamboat), 100
Jaketown Site, Mississippi, 629
James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (1975), 552
Jamestown, 421, 425
Jay's Treaty (1794), 144, 313-314
Jerome Commission (1892), 337
Jesuit missionaries, 243, 249, 413
Johnson v. McIntosh (1823), 83

K
Kachinas, 466
Kahnawake people, 249
Kansas
. See Geographical Index
Kathio Site, Minnesota, 630
Kearny Code, 522
Keeler Commission (est. 1961), 314-316
Keetoowah Society (est. 1859), 316
Kennedy Report (1967), 317
Kennewick Man, 318-322
Key Marco, Florida, 630
Kickapoo Resistance (1819-1834), 323
Kickapoo uprisings (1865-1873), 324
Kid catching, 67
King George's War (1739-1748), 11
King Philip's War
. See Metacom's War
Kingdom (term), 562
Kiowa uprising (1871), 286
Kiva Clubs, 380
Kivas, 466
Knife River Indian Villages, North Dakota, 630
Koster, Illinois, 631

L
Lacey Act (1907), 290
Lake Mohonk Conferences, 165, 171, 289, 378
Lancaster Treaty (1744), 11
Land claims, 242; trust funds, 224-225
Landergin Mesa, Texas, 631
Langdeau Site, South Dakota, 631
Language, written (Cherokee), 88
L'Anse aux Meadows, 254
Leary Site, Nebraska, 631
Lehner, Arizona, 632
Lemhi Pass, Tendoy, Idaho, 631
Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806), 324-329; map, 328
Little Arkansas Treaty (1865), 359
Little Bighorn, Battle of the (1876), 287, 329-332, 514, 592
Little Bighorn, Montana, 632
Little Turtle's War (1790-1794), 274, 333-335; Fallen Timbers, 131-135; Wabash, 572-573
Lochaber, Treaty of (1770), 459
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock (1903), 290, 336-339, 558
Long Island of the Holston, Tennessee, 632
Long Walk (1866), 340-344; map, 342
Longest Walk (1978), 26, 345-346, 543
Longhouse religion, 103
Lord Dunmore's War (1774), 346-349
Louisiana Purchase (1803), 325
Lower Loup phase, 443
Lowry Ruin, Colorado, 632
Lubbock Lake Site, Texas, 633
Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association (1987), 32, 350-351

M
Maine
. See Geographical Index
Maine Indian Claims Act (1980), 351-352
Major Crimes Act (1885), 122, 131, 194, 289, 352-353
Mangas Coloradus, 35
Manhattan Island purchase (1626), 236, 353-356
Manifest destiny, 174, 280, 521
Manitoba
. See Geographical Index
Manitoba Act (1870), 489
Marmes Rockshelter, Washington, 633
Mascouten people, 250
Mashantucket Pequot Reservation, Connecticut, 633
Maumee Confederacy, 573
Measles, 126, 466
Medicine Lodge Creek Treaty (1867), 337, 357-361, 473, 582
Medicine Lodge Peace Treaty Site, Kansas, 633
Medicine Wheel, Wyoming, 633
Meech Lake Accord (1990), 117, 233, 362-363
Menoken Indian Village Site, North Dakota, 634
Menominee, 530
Menominee Restoration Act (1973), 363-364
Menominee Tribe v. United States (1968), 558
Meriam Report (1928), 20, 67, 74, 107, 290, 292, 364-365, 481
Mesa Verde, Colorado, 634
Metacom's War (1675), 365-369, 411
Metis, 551; origins of, 228
Mexican-American War (1846-1848), 174, 281
Michigan
. See Geographical Index
Midwest
. See Geographical Index
Militancy, 25-26
Minisink Archaeological Site, Pennsylvania, 634
Minnesota
. See Geographical Index
Minnesota Uprising (1862), 370-371
Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, California, 634
Mission Santa Ines, California, 635
Missions and missionaries, 229; California, 76-79, 266; Catholic, 227, 262;
French, 249; Indian, 242; Southwest, 413
. See also Franciscan missionaries; Jesuit missionaries
Mississippi
. See Geographical Index
Mississippian cultures, 442, 448
Missouri
. See Geographical Index
Moccasin Bend Archaeological District, Tennessee, 635
Modoc War (1872-1873), 286, 372-373
Mogollon culture, 452
Mohawk tribe; and Dutch, 235; sovereignty, 104
Mohawk Upper Castle Historic District, New York, 635
Molstad Village, South Dakota, 636
Montana
. See Geographical Index
Moraughtacund; Powhatan Confederacy, 420
Moultrie Creek Treaty (1823), 507
Mound builders cultures, 53, 433, 449
Moundville, Alabama, 449, 636
Mount Dexter, Treaty of (1805), 545
Muddy Creek, Battle of (1876), 287
Mummy Cave, Wyoming, 440

N
NAGPRA
. See Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
NARF
. See Native American Rights Fund
Narragansett; Pequot War, 409
Natchez, Mississippi, 636
Natchez Revolt (1729), 374
National Congress of American Indians (est. 1944), 375-376
National Council of American Indians (est. 1926), 376-377
National Indian Association (est. 1879), 378-379
National Indian Brotherhood (est. 1968), 117
National Indian Council (est. 1961), 117
National Indian Education Association (est. 1969), 379-380
National Indian Youth Council (est. 1961), 380-381
Nations, tribes as, 563
Native American (term), 21, 177, 381-382
Native American Church, 31, 383
Native American Church v. Navajo Tribal Council (1959), 382-383
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (1990), 318, 383-385
Native American Languages Act (1990), 297
Native American Rights Fund (est. 1970), 385-386
Navajo Code Talkers Association (est. 1971), 108
Navajo-Hopi Land Settlement Act (1974), 387
Navajo-Hopi Long Range Rehabilitation Act
. See Navajo Rehabilitation Act
Navajo National Monument, Arizona, 637
Navajo Rehabilitation Act (1950), 388-389
Navajo Reservation, 387
Navajo Tribe of Indians, Treaty Between the United States of America and the (1868), 344
Navajo War (1863-1866), 390-391
NCAI
. See National Congress of American Indians; National Council of American Indians
Nebraska
. See Geographical Index
Nevada
. See Geographical Index
New Echota Treaty (1835), 547
New Jersey
. See Geographical Index
New Mexico
. See Geographical Index
New Netherland Company (est. 1614), 235
New York
. See Geographical Index
Newspapers, Native American, 87
Newtonia battles (1862, 1864), 99
Nez Perce National Historical Park, Idaho, 637
Nez Perce War (1877), 286, 391-395; map, 394
NIA
. See National Indian Association
NIEA
. See National Indian Education Association
Nisga'a Agreement in Principle (1996), 395-396
NIYC
. See National Indian Youth Council
Norse colonialism, 254-256
North America (colonial)
. See Geographical Index
North Carolina
. See Geographical Index
North-West Angle Treaty (1873), 551
North West Company, 470
Northeast
. See Geographical Index
Northeastern Quebec Agreement (1978), 552
Northwest Ordinance (1787), 397-398
Northwest Territories
. See Geographical Index
Northwest Uprising (second Riel Rebellion, 1885), 490
Norton Mound Group, Michigan, 637
Nunavut Territory (1993), 233, 362, 398-399, 553
. See also Geographical Index

O
Obsidian Cliff, Wyoming, 638
Oconto Site, Wisconsin, 638
Ohio
. See Geographical Index
Ojibwa tribe, 550
Oka crisis (1990), 399-400
Oklahoma
. See Geographical Index
Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act (1936), 401-402
Old Oraibi, Arizona, 638
Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe (1978), 402
Ontario
. See Geographical Index
Opata people, 413
Oregon
. See Geographical Index
Oregon Territory, 280, 392
Owasco culture, 305
Ozette, Washington, 638

P
Pacific Northwest
. See Geographical Index
Paleo-Arctic tradition, 428
Paleo-Indians, 447
Paris, Treaty of (1763), 163, 416
Paris, Treaty of (1783), 132, 141, 152, 312-313, 544, 572
Pavonia Massacre (1643), 403
Paxton Boys' Massacres (1763), 403-407
Payne's Landing, Treaty of (1832), 548
Pea Ridge, Battle of (1862), 99, 282
Peach Wars (1655-1664), 236, 408
Pemaquid Archaeological Site, Maine, 638
Pemmican, 470
Pemmican Proclamation (1814), 471
Pennsylvania
. See Geographical Index
Penutian-speaking people, 437
Pequot War (1636-1637), 409-412, 505
Peyote, 31
Picotte Memorial Hospital, Nebraska, 639
Pictograph Cave, Montana, 639
Pike Pawnee Village Site, Nebraska, 639
Pima uprisings (1695, 1751), 413-414
Pin Indians, 316
Pine Ridge shootout (1975), 26, 414-416
Pipestone Quarries, Minnesota, 640
Piqunin tradition, 446
Pit houses, 452
Pittsburgh, Treaty of (1775), 349
Plague, 126
Plains of Abraham, Battle of the (1759), 162
Plainview points, 439
Plano tradition, 440
Plateau
. See Geographical Index
Plymouth Colony, 366
Point Pleasant, Battle of (1774), 348
Pontiac's Resistance (1763-1766), 240, 310, 346, 416-419, 456
Pontotoc Creek, Treaty of (1832), 546
Port Madison Reservation, 402
Potlatch, 232
Poverty Point, Louisiana, 448, 640
Powder River expedition, 592
Powhatan Confederacy, 420-424
Powhatan Wars (1622-1646), 273, 424-426
Prehistory; Arctic, 427-428; California, 428-430; Great Basin, 430-432;
Northeast, 432-435; Northwest Coast, 435-438; Plains, 439-444; Plateau, 444-446;
Southeast, 447-449; Southwest, 449-453; Subarctic, 453-455
Presidios, 262
Problem of Indian Administration, The
. See Meriam Report
Proclamation of 1763, 163, 310, 397, 417, 455-459; map, 457
Property rights, 242
Prophetstown (est. 1808), 156, 460-463, 526, 537
Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, 8
Public Lands Act (1923), 18
Public Law 280 (1953), 464-465
Pueblo Grande Ruin and irrigation sites, Arizona, 640
Pueblo peoples, 2-3, 560; Anasazi predecessors, 453
Pueblo Revolt (1680), 265, 465-468
Put-In Bay, Battle of (1813), 532

Q
Quaker Peace Policy, 473
Quakers, 103, 404, 567
Quapaw tribe, 250
Quebec
. See Geographical Index

R
Railroad; Canada, 550; impact of, 57, 488, 578
Re Paulette et al. and the Registrar of Titles (1974), 552
Red Progressive movement, 376
Red River Colony, 550
Red River Raids (1815-1817), 469-472
Red River Rebellion (first Riel Rebellion, 1869-1870), 488
Red River War (1874-1875), 4, 286, 473-476
Red Sticks, 113, 149, 176
Religion; Christianization, 218, 229; English missionaries, 242;
Ghost Dance, 101, 287, 598; Handsome Lake, 101-104; Russian Orthodox, 259; Zuñi, 611
. See also Christianization; Franciscan missionaries; Jesuit missionaries;
Missions and missionaries; Religious freedom
Religious freedom, 29-32, 124, 194, 205-206, 216, 297, 350, 382, 466
Remarks Concerning the Savages (Franklin), 239
Repartimiento system, 261, 466
Reservation system (U.S.), 478-483
Reserve system (Canada), 179, 484-487
Revolutionary War
. See American Revolution
Riel Rebellions (1869-1870, 1885), 231, 488-491, 551; map, 489
Robinson-Huron and Robinson-Superior treaties (1850), 550
Rosebud Creek, Battle of (1876), 287, 492-493
Rosebud Reservation, 540
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1991-1996), 494-499
Royal Proclamation of 1763, 495, 549
. See also Proclamation of 1763
Russian-American Company, 258
Russian colonialism, 77, 257-259, 266
Russian Orthodox Church, 259

S
St. Regis Mohawk Reservation, 298
Salinas Pueblo Missions, New Mexico, 640
Salish-speaking people, 437
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Reservation, 122
San Antonio missions, Texas, 641
San Carlos Reservation, 36, 287
San Xavier del Bac Mission, Arizona, 641
Sand Creek Massacre (1864), 359, 500-503
Sand Hollow, Battle of (1848), 83
Sandoval case (1913), 17
Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez (1978), 195, 503-504
Santa Fe Trail, 521
Saskatchewan
. See Geographical Index
Saulteaux, 550
Saybrook, Battle of (1636-1637), 410, 504-506
Scandinavian explorers, 254
Sechelt Indian Band Self-Government Act (1986), 487
Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
. See Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
Seminole Tribe of Indians v. Florida (1996), 201
Seminole Wars (1817-1858), 506-510
Sequoyah's Cabin, Oklahoma, 641
Serpent Mound, Ohio, 641
Seven Oaks Massacre (1816), 471
Seven Years' War (1756-1763), 14, 94, 160, 252, 549
Severalty
. See Allotment system; General Allotment Act
Shawnee Mission, Kansas, 641
Sheepeaters War (1879), 286
Sherbert v. Verner (1963), 124
Shiloh, Tennessee, 642
Siouan-speaking people, 433
Sioux War (1862), 282, 511-514
Sioux War (1876), 287
Sitka, Alaska, 642
Skraelings, 255
Slave trade in Indians; by other Indians, 220-224; by Spanish, 262
Slim Buttes, Battle of (1876), 287
Smallpox, 126, 240; blankets carrying, 418; Canada, 232
Snake War (1866-1868), 44, 515-516
Snaketown, Arizona, 642
Society of American Indians (1911-1924), 376, 516-517
South
. See Geographical Index
South Carolina
. See Geographical Index
Southeast
. See Geographical Index
Southwest
. See Geographical Index
Spanish colonialism, 260-267
Spiro, Oklahoma, 642
Sports mascots and team names, 518-520
Standing Bear v. Crook (1879), 288, 520
Status Indians, 117, 180
Stephens v. Cherokee Nation (1899), 290
Subarctic
. See Geographical Index
Sunken Village Archaeological Site, Oregon, 643
Sunwatch Site, Ohio, 643
Supreme Court (U.S.) and treaties, 557
Survival of American Indians Association (1964), 139
Swamp Fight, Great (1676), 368
Swedish colonialism, 268-271
Sycamore Shoals, Tennessee, 643

T
Tahlequah, Oklahoma, 643
Talton v. Mayes (1896), 193
Taos, New Mexico, 644
Taos Rebellion (1847), 521-524
Taylor Peace Commission (1868), 343
Tecumseh's Rebellion (1809-1811), 525-527
Tennessee
. See Geographical Index
Termination Resolution (1953), 136, 294, 315, 482, 528-531
Texas
. See Geographical Index
Thames, Battle of the (1813), 527, 532-535
Three Fires Indians, 252
Thule tradition, 427
Tippecanoe, Battle of (1811), 274, 463, 527, 536-538
Tippecanoe Battlefield, Indiana, 644
Tobias-Thompson Complex, Kansas, 644
Toltec Mounds Site, Arkansas, 645
Toolesboro Mound Group, Iowa, 645
Tordesillas, Treaty of (1494), 246
Trachoma, 129
Trade; early U.S. Republic, 274; English colonial, 240
. See also Fur trade
Trade and Intercourse Acts (1790-1834), 275, 352, 538-540
Trail of Broken Treaties (1972), 540-543, 558
Trail of Tears (1830-1842), 90, 116, 211, 302, 478, 544-548; map, 545
Trans-Alaska Pipeline, 8
Treaties and agreements; Canadian, 549-554; U.S., 555-559
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
. See Dancing Rabbit Creek, Treaty of
Treaty of Doak's Stand
. See Doak's Stand, Treaty of
Treaty of Fort Laramie
. See Fort Laramie, Treaty of
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
. See Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of
Treaty of New Echota
. See New Echota, Treaty of
Treaty of Paris
. See Paris, Treaty of (1898)
Treaty of Payne's Landing
. See Payne's Landing, Treaty of
Tribal courts, 289, 402, 560-561
Tribally Controlled Community College Act (1978), 24
Tribe (term), 561-565
Tribes, federal recognition of, 136
Trust funds, 224-226
Tuberculosis, 129
Tuscarora War (1711-1713), 566-569, 608

U
Umatilla tribe, 286
Union Party, 316
United Nations, 301
United States
. See Geographical Index
United States v. Kagama (1886), 193, 289, 570
United States v. Sioux Nation (1980), 297, 339
United States v. Washington (1974), 139, 570-572
Utah
. See Geographical Index
Ute War (1879), 286
Utz Site, Missouri, 645

V
Valverde, Battle of (1862), 340
Vanderbilt Archaeological Site, South Dakota, 645
Veterans Citizenship Act (1919), 191
Vinland, 255
Virginia
. See Geographical Index
Voting rights, 595

W
Wabash, Battle of the (1791), 572-573
Waiilatpu Mission, 82
Walam Olum, 269
Walking Purchase (1737), 574-577
Walla Walla Council (1855), 577-578, 607
Wallamwatkin, 393
Wallowa Lake Site, Oregon, 645
War of 1812, 110, 115, 274, 470, 527, 532
WARN
. See Women of All Red Nations
Warrior Society, 104
Washington State
. See Geographical Index
Washita Battlefield, Oklahoma, 646
Washita River Massacre (1868), 361, 579-582
Weippe Prairie, Idaho, 646
Weroances, 422
West
. See Geographical Index
West India Company (est. 1621), 235
West Indian uprisings (1495-1510), 583-586
West Indies
. See Geographical Index
Wheeler-Howard Act
. See Indian Reorganization Act
White Hill, Battle of (1863), 514
White Paper of Canada (1969-1970), 586-588
Whitman Massacre (1847), 280
Wild west shows (1883-1914), 588-590
Winnebago Uprising (1827), 590-591
Winters v. United States (1908), 591-592
Wisconsin
. See Geographical Index
Wolf Mountains, Battle of (1877), 287, 592
Women of All Red Nations (est. 1978), 593
Wood Lake, Battle of (1862), 371
Woodland tradition, 432, 440, 448
Worcester v. Georgia (1832), 85, 88, 184
World War I, 191, 594
World War II, 232, 293, 595-597
Wounded Knee Battlefield, South Dakota, 646
Wounded Knee Massacre (1890), 288, 514, 598-601
Wounded Knee occupation (1973), 25, 27, 297, 415, 602-606
Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, 646
Wyoming
. See Geographical Index

X

Y
Yakima War (1855-1856), 607-608
Yamasee War (1715-1728), 94, 223, 608-609
Yellow Creek Massacre (1774), 347
Yellowstone, Wyoming, 647
Yuma Crossing, Arizona, 647

Z
Zuñi-Cíbola Complex, New Mexico, 647
Zuñi people, 3
Zuñi Rebellion (1632), 609-613


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