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Child Soldiers
Daoist Ethics
Deep Ecology
The Principles of Morals
Genocide and Democide
International Red Cross
Kant, Immanuel
Lotteries
Medical Research

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Ethics, Revised Edition
Editor: John K. Roth, Claremont McKenna College
December 2004 · 3 volumes · 1,773 pages · 8"x10"


ISBN: 978-1-58765-170-0
Print List Price: $364


e-ISBN: 978-1-58765-318-6
eBook Single User Price: $364

Ethics, Revised Edition
Table of Contents

Publisher's Note, ix
Introduction: Old and New in Ethics, xi
Contributing Scholars, xv
Complete List of Contents, xxiii

A
Abelard, Peter, 1
Abolition, 1
Abortion, 3
Absolutism, 10
Absurd, The, 11
Abū Bakr, 12
Abū Hanīfah, 12
Abuse, 12
Academic freedom, 14
Accountability, 16
Accuracy in Media, 17
Accused, rights of, 18
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 19
Adultery, 22
Adversary system, 23
Advertising, 24
Advice columnists, 28
Affirmative action, 29
African ethics, 31
Ageism, 37
Aggression, 38
Agreement for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic, 40
Agribusiness, 41
Ahimsā, 42
Akbar the Great, 42
Alī ibn Abī Tālib, 43
Alienation, 44
Altruism, 46
American Association of Retired Persons, 50
American Civil Liberties Union, 51
American Federation of Labor, 52
American Inns of Court, 52
American Medical Association, 53
American Society of Newspaper Editors, 53
Americans with Disabilities Act, 54
Amnesty International, 54
Anarchy, 55
Anger, 57
Animal consciousness, 59
Animal research, 60
Animal rights, 62
Anthropological ethics, 67
Anthropomorphism of the divine, 69
Anti-Semitism, 70
Antitrust legislation, 72
Apartheid, 74
Apologizing for past wrongs, 76
Apology, 78
Applied ethics, 79
Arbitration, 81
Arendt, Hannah, 82
Aristotelian ethics, 83
Aristotle, 84
Arrest records, 86
Art, 87
Art and public policy, 88
Art of War, The, 92
Artificial intelligence, 92
Asceticism, 94
Aśoka, 96
Assassination, 96
Assisted suicide. See Suicide assistance
Atatürk, 100
Atheism, 101
Atom bomb, 102
Atomic Energy Commission, 105
Attorney-client privilege, 105
Attorney misconduct, 106
Augustine, Saint, 108
Aurobindo, Sri, 109
Authenticity, 110
Autonomy, 110
Avalokiteśvara, 112
Averroës, 112
Avicenna, 113
Ayer, A. J., 113

B
Bacon, Francis, 115
Bad faith, 115
Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda, 116
Beauvoir, Simone de, 116
Behavior therapy, 118
Behaviorism, 119
Being and Nothingness, 121
Benevolence, 122
Bennett, William, 123
Bentham, Jeremy, 124
Berdyayev, Nikolay, 124
Bergson, Henri, 125
Betting on sports, 125
Beyond Good and Evil, 126
Bhagavadgītā, 127
Bigotry, 128
Bilingual education, 129
Bill of Rights, English. See English Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights, U.S., 130
Bills of rights, medical. See Medical bills of rights
Biochemical weapons, 132
Biodiversity, 137
Bioethics, 137
Biofeedback, 142
Biometrics, 144
Biotechnology, 147
Birth control, 149
Birth defects, 151
Black Muslims. See Nation of Islam
Bodhidharma, 153
Bodhisattva ideal, 154
Boethius, 156
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 156
Book banning, 158
Bosnia, 163
Boycotts, 165
Bradley, F. H., 166
Brain death, 166
Brandeis, Louis D., 168
Bribery, 168
Brown v. Board of Education, 170
Buber, Martin, 172
Buddha, 174
Buddhist ethics, 176
al-Būkhārī, 178
Burke, Edmund, 179
Bushido, 179
Business ethics, 181
Butler, Joseph, 187
Bystanders, 188

C
Calvin, John, 189
Campaign finance reform, 189
Camus, Albert, 191
Cannibalism, 192
Capital punishment, 193
Capitalism, 197
Caste system, Hindu, 199
Casuistry, 201
Cell-phone etiquette, 202
Censorship, 203
Cesarean sections, 208
Character, 208
Charity, 210
Cheating, 212
Chemical warfare, 214
Child abuse, 217
Child labor legislation, 219
Child psychology, 221
Child soldiers, 223
Child support, 224
Children, 226
Children's Bureau, 230
Children's rights, 231
Children's television, 234
Chivalry, 237
Choice, 238
Choiceless choices, 240
Christian ethics, 241
Chu Hsi. See Zhu Xi
Chuang Chou. See Zhuangzi
Church-state separation, 243
Cicero, 245
Citizenship, 245
Civil disobedience, 247
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 250
Civil rights and liberties, 251
Civil Rights movement, 252
Class struggle, 255
Clean Air Act, 256
Clean Water Act, 257
Clinton, Bill, 257
Cloning, 259
Code of Professional Responsibility, 261
Codes of civility, 262
Coercion, 263
Cognitivism, 264
Cohen, Randy, 266
Cold War, 266
Collective guilt, 269
College applications, 270
Colonialism and imperialism, 271
Commission on Civil Rights, U.S., 273
Common good, 274
Communism, 276
Communist Manifesto, The, 277
Communitarianism, 279
Comparative ethics, 281
Compassion, 283
Compromise, 285
Computer crime, 286
Computer databases, 290
Computer misuse, 291
Computer technology, 293
Comte, Auguste, 294
Concentration camps, 295
Confidentiality, 297
Conflict of interest, 299
Conflict resolution, 301
Confucian ethics, 303
Confucius, 304
Congress, 306
Congress of Racial Equality, 308
Conscience, 308
Conscientious objection, 313
Consent, 314
Consequentialism, 315
Conservation, 316
Conservatism, 316
Consistency, 318
Constitution, U.S., 319
Constitutional government, 321
Consumerism, 323
Conversion of one's system of beliefs, 323
Cooper, Anthony Ashley. See Shaftesbury, third earl of
Copyright, 324
Corporate compensation, 326
Corporate responsibility, 328
Corporate scandal, 328
Corruption, 331
Cost-benefit analysis, 332
Courage, 333
Covert action, 335
Criminal punishment, 336
Critical theory, 338
Cruelty, 340
Cruelty to animals, 342
Custom, 344
Cynicism, 345
Cyrenaics, 347

D
Dalai Lama, 349
Dallaire, Roméo, 351
Daoist ethics, 352
Darwin, Charles, 354
Death and dying, 355
Declaration of Independence, 357
Deconstruction, 358
Deep ecology, 360
Deforestation, 362
Deism, 364
Democracy, 365
Deontological ethics, 367
Derrida, Jacques, 369
Descartes, René, 370
Desire, 371
Determinism and freedom, 373
Deterrence, 374
Developing world, 375
Dewey, John, 377
Diagnosis, 380
Dictatorship, 381
Dignity, 383
Dilemmas, moral, 384
Dirty hands, 386
Disability rights, 386
The Disappeared, 388
Discrimination, 390
Distributive justice, 392
Diversity, 394
Divine command theory, 395
Divorce, 397
Dōgen, 401
Dominion over nature, human, 402
Dostoevski, Fyodor, 403
Downsizing, 403
Dresden firebombing, 404
Dress codes, 405
Dronenburg v. Zech, 407
Drug abuse, 407
Drug testing, 409
Du Bois, W. E. B., 411
Due process, 412
Durkheim, Émile, 412
Duty, 413

E
Earth and humanity, 415
Earth Day, 417
Ecofeminism, 417
Ecology, 418
Economic analysis, 419
Economics, 420
Edwards, Jonathan, 422
Egalitarianism, 423
Egoism, 424
Egotist, 425
Either/Or, 426
Electronic mail, 427
Electronic surveillance, 428
Electroshock therapy, 430
Elitism, 432
Emancipation Proclamation, 434
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 436
Emotivist ethics, 436
Employee safety and treatment, 438
Endangered species, 441
English Bill of Rights, 443
Enlightenment ethics, 444
Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, An, 447
Entitlements, 449
Entrapment. See Journalistic entrapment
Environmental ethics, 450
Environmental movement, 455
Environmental Protection Agency, 457
Envy, 458
Epictetus, 459
Epicurus, 460
Epistemological ethics, 460
Equal pay for equal work, 462
Equal Rights Amendment, 462
Equality, 464
Erroneous convictions, 469
Espionage, 470
Ethical codes of organizations, 471
Ethical monotheism, 473
Ethical Principles of Psychologists, 473
Ethics, 474
Ethics, 476
Ethics in Government Act, 477
Ethics/morality distinction, 479
Ethnic cleansing, 479
Ethnocentrism, 480
Etiquette, 480
Eugenics, 482
Euthanasia, 483
Evers, Medgar, 485
"Everyone does it", 486
Evil, 487
Evolutionary theory, 491
Excellence, 494
Executive Order 10988, 496
Existentialism, 496
Experimentation, 501
Exploitation, 502

F
Fact/value distinction, 505
Fair Labor Standards Act, 506
Fairness, 507
Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, 509
Faith healers, 509
Family, 511
Family therapy, 515
Family values, 517
Famine, 519
al-Fārābī, 520
Farrakhan, Louis, 521
Fascism, 522
Fatalism, 523
Fātima, 523
Fear in the workplace, 523
Feminine Mystique, The, 525
Feminist ethics, 526
First Amendment, 528
Five precepts of Buddhism, 529
Forgiveness, 529
Foucault, Michel, 531
Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, 532
Four noble truths, 532
Fraud, 534
Free enterprise, 536
Free-riding, 537
Freedom and liberty, 539
Freedom of expression, 543
Freedom of Information Act, 548
Freud, Sigmund, 549
Friendship, 552
Future generations, 553
Future-oriented ethics, 555

G
Gaia hypothesis, 558
Gandhi, Mohandas K., 558
Gangs, 559
Gault, In re, 561
Gay rights, 561
Gender bias, 564
Generosity, 566
Genetic counseling, 567
Genetic engineering, 568
Genetic testing, 572
Genetically modified foods, 575
Geneva conventions, 578
Genocide, cultural, 580
Genocide, frustration-aggression theory of, 581
Genocide and democide, 583
Gewirth, Alan, 586
al-Ghazālī, 587
Gideon v. Wainwright, 588
Global warming, 589
Globalization, 590
Gluttony, 592
God, 593
Godparents, 595
Golden mean, 596
Golden rule, 597
Good, The, 598
Good samaritan laws, 602
Goss v. Lopez, 603
Gossip, 603
Gratitude, 604
Gray Panthers, 605
Greed, 606
Green parties, 607
Greenhouse effect, 608
Greenpeace, 609
Griswold v. Connecticut, 609
Grotius, Hugo, 610
Group therapy, 611
Guilt and shame, 612
Gulag Archipelago, The, 614

H
Hadīth, 616
al-Hallāj, 616
Hammurabi's code, 617
Hare, R. M., 619
Harm, 619
Hart, H. L. A., 620
Hartshorne, Charles, 621
Hasidism, 622
Hate, 622
Hate crime and hate speech, 624
Head Start, 625
Health care allocation, 625
Hebrew Bible, 628
Hedonism, 630
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 632
Heidegger, Martin, 634
Heroism, 634
Hindu ethics, 636
Hippocrates, 638
Hiring practices, 640
Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, 641
Hitler, Adolf, 643
Hobbes, Thomas, 646
Holistic medicine, 647
Holocaust, 647
Holy war, 653
Homeland defense, 657
Homeless care, 658
Homicide, 660
Homophobia, 661
Homosexuality, 664
Honesty, 669
Honor, 674
Honor systems and codes, 675
Hsün Tzu. See Xunzi
Huineng, 676
Human Genome Project, 677
Human nature, 679
Human Nature and Conduct, 683
Human rights, 684
Human Rights Watch, 688
Humane Society of the United States, 689
Humanism, 690
Hume, David, 692
Humility, 694
Hunger, 695
Husayn, 698
Hussein, Saddam, 699
Hypnosis, 700
Hypocrisy, 702

I
I and Thou, 704
Ibn al-Arabī, 704
Ibn Gabirol, 705
Ibn Khaldūn, 706
Ideal observer, 706
Idealist ethics, 707
Identity theft, 709
Ideology, 712
Illness, 713
Immigration, 715
Immigration Reform and Control Act, 718
Immortality, 718
Impartiality, 720
In re Gault. See Gault, In re
In vitro fertilization, 720
Incest, 723
Income distribution, 725
Incommensurability, 728
Index librorum prohibitorum, 729
Individualism, 730
Industrial research, 732
Inequality, 733
Infanticide, 734
Infomercials, 736
Information access, 736
Inside information, 739
Insider trading, 740
Institutionalization of patients, 741
Integration, 743
Integrity, 746
Intellectual property, 748
Intelligence testing, 749
Intention, 750
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 751
International Criminal Court, 752
International justice, 753
International Labour Organisation, 755
International law, 756
International Monetary Fund, 758
International Organization of Consumers Unions, 758
International Red Cross, 759
Internet chat rooms, 760
Internet piracy, 761
Intersubjectivity, 763
Intervention, 765
Intrinsic good, 766
Intuitionist ethics, 766
Invasion of privacy, 768
Iraq, 768
Is/ought distinction, 771
Islamic ethics, 772
Isolationism, 776
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 776

J
Jackson, Jesse, 780
Jain ethics, 781
James, William, 782
Japanese American internment, 783
Jealousy, 785
Jefferson, Thomas, 787
Jesus Christ, 787
Jewish ethics, 789
Jihad, 791
Journalistic entrapment, 792
Journalistic ethics, 794
Judicial conduct code, 796
Jung, Carl, 796
Jurisprudence, 797
Jury system, 799
Just war theory, 800
Justice, 801

K
Kabbala, 803
Kant, Immanuel, 804
Kantian ethics, 806
Karma, 808
Keller, Helen, 810
Kemal, Mustafa. See Atatürk
Kevorkian, Jack, 810
Kierkegaard, Sřren, 811
al-Kindī, 813
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 814
Knights of Labor, 816
Kohlberg, Lawrence, 816
Koran. See Qurān
Kosovo, 817
Ku Klux Klan, 819
Kūkai, 821

L
Labor-Management Relations Act, 822
Land mines, 822
Language, 823
Lao Tzu. See Laozi
Laozi, 825
Law, 827
Lawyer for the situation, 831
Laziness, 831
Leadership, 832
League of Nations, 833
League of Women Voters, 836
Legal ethics, 837
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 838
Lemkin, Raphael, 839
Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, 839
Leopold, Aldo, 843
Leviathan, 844
Levinas, Emmanuel, 845
Libel, 845
Liberalism, 846
Libertarianism, 847
Library Bill of Rights, 849
Life, meaning of, 849
Life and death, 854
Lifeboat ethics, 858
Lifestyles, 859
Limited war, 860
Lincoln, Abraham, 861
Lobbying, 862
Lobotomy, 863
Locke, John, 865
Lotteries, 867
Love, 869
Loyalty, 871
Loyalty oaths, 872
Luck and chance, 874
Lust, 875
Luther, Martin, 876
Lying, 877
Lynching, 879

M
McCarthy, Joseph R., 882
Machiavelli, Niccolň, 883
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 885
Mādhyamaka, 886
Magna Carta, 887
Mahāvīra. See Vardhamāna
Maimonides, Moses, 889
Malcolm X, 890
Malthus, Thomas, 891
Mandela, Nelson, 892
Manhattan Project, 894
Manichaeanism, 895
Manifest destiny, 897
Mapplethorpe, Robert, 897
Marcus Aurelius, 898
Marketing, 898
Marriage, 900
Marshall Plan, 902
Marx, Karl, 903
Marxism, 905
Maximal vs. minimal ethics, 906
Mean/ends distinction, 908
Media ownership, 910
Medical bills of rights, 912
Medical ethics, 914
Medical insurance, 919
Medical research, 922
Mencius, 928
Men's movement, 929
Mental illness, 931
Mentoring, 936
Mercenary soldiers, 937
Mercy, 938
Merit, 940
Messianism, 942
Metaethics, 943
Milgram experiment, 945
Military ethics, 946
Mill, John Stuart, 948
Minimum-wage laws, 949
Miranda v. Arizona, 950
Mo Tzu. See Mozi
Monopoly, 951
Monroe Doctrine, 951
Montesquieu, 952
Moore, G. E., 953
Moral education, 953
Moral equivalence, 955
Moral luck, 955
Moral principles, rules, and imperatives, 957
Moral realism, 961
Moral responsibility, 962
Moral-sense theories, 964
Moral status of animals, 965
Morality, 967
Moses, 971
Moses ben Maimon. See Maimonides, Moses
Motion picture ratings systems, 973
Motivation, 975
Motze. See Mozi
Mozi, 977
Muhammad, 979
Muir, John, 980
Multiculturalism, 981
Multinational corporations, 983
Mutually assured destruction, 985
Mysticism, 985

N
Nader, Ralph, 990
Nāgārjuna, 991
Nagel, Thomas, 992
Nānak, 992
Napster, 993
Narcissism, 995
Narrative ethics, 995
Nation of Islam, 996
National Anti-Vivisection Society, 998
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 999
National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1000
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 1001
National Labor Relations Act, 1001
National Labor Union, 1002
National Organization for Women, 1002
National Park System, U.S. , 1003
National security and sovereignty, 1003
Nationalism, 1005
Native American casinos, 1009
Native American ethics, 1012
Native American genocide, 1013
Natural law, 1016
Natural rights, 1021
Naturalistic fallacy, 1024
Nature, rights of, 1025
Nature Conservancy Council, 1027
Nazi science, 1027
Nazism, 1030
Needs and wants, 1033
Negligence, 1033
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 1035
News sources, 1035
Nicomachean Ethics, 1037
Niebuhr, H. Richard, 1037
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 1038
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 1038
Nihilism, 1040
Nirvana, 1042
Nobel Peace Prizes, 1044
Nonviolence, 1047
Normative vs. descriptive ethics, 1048
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1050
"Not in my backyard", 1051
Nozick, Robert, 1053
Nuclear arms race, 1054
Nuclear energy, 1057
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1059
Nuremberg Trials, 1060
Nussbaum, Martha, 1062

O
Obedience, 1064
Objectivism, 1065
On Liberty, 1067
On War, 1069
Oppression, 1069
Organ transplants, 1071
Ortega y Gasset, José, 1073
Orwell, George, 1074
Other, The, 1075
Ought/can implication, 1076
Outsourcing, 1077

P
Pacifism, 1079
Pain, 1081
Pan-Africanism, 1082
Panentheism, 1084
Pantheism, 1086
Paradoxes in ethics, 1086
Parenting, 1089
Parole of convicted prisoners, 1090
Pascal, Blaise, 1091
Passions and emotions, 1093
Passive resistance. See Nonviolence
Paternalism, 1097
Patriotism, 1098
Peace Corps, 1099
Peace studies, 1100
Peacekeeping missions, 1102
Peirce, Charles Sanders, 1104
Peltier conviction, 1105
Pentagon Papers, 1106
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, 1107
Perfectionism, 1109
Perjury, 1110
Permissible acts, 1111
Perry, R. B., 1112
Personal injury attorneys, 1113
Personal relationships, 1113
Pessimism and optimism, 1118
Phenomenology of Spirit, 1120
Philo of Alexandria, 1122
Photojournalism, 1122
Physician-patient relationship, 1124
Plagiarism, 1126
Plato, 1130
Platonic ethics, 1132
"Playing god" in medical decision making, 1136
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1136
Pluralism, 1137
Pogroms, 1138
Police brutality, 1139
Political correctness, 1142
Political liberty, 1144
Political realism, 1145
Politics, 1146
Poll taxes, 1150
Pollution, 1151
Pollution permits, 1153
Poona Pact, 1154
Population Connection, 1155
Population control, 1155
Pornography, 1158
Post-Enlightenment ethics, 1162
Postmodernism, 1167
Potsdam Conference, 1169
Poverty, 1169
Poverty and wealth, 1171
Power, 1172
Practical reason, 1177
Pragmatism, 1177
Premarital sex, 1179
Prescriptivism, 1181
Price fixing, 1181
Pride, 1182
Principles of Medical Ethics, 1183
Principles of Medical Ethics with Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry, 1184
Prisoner's dilemma, 1185
Privacy, 1187
Private vs. public morality, 1188
Pro-choice movement, 1190
Product safety and liability, 1192
Professional athlete incomes, 1195
Professional ethics, 1198
Profit economy, 1203
Profit taking, 1203
Progressivism, 1204
Pro-life movement, 1204
Promiscuity, 1206
Promises, 1208
Property, 1209
Prostitution, 1211
Prudence, 1214
Psychology, 1215
Psychopharmacology, 1219
Public interest, 1221
Public's right to know, 1222
Punishment, 1223

Q
Quinlan, Karen Ann, 1225
Qurān, 1226

R
Rābiah al-Adawīyah, 1228
Racial prejudice, 1228
Racism, 1230
Rain forests, 1235
Rand, Ayn, 1236
Rape, 1237
Rape and political domination, 1242
Rawls, John, 1244
al-Razi, 1244
Reality television, 1244
Realpolitik, 1246
Reason and rationality, 1247
Reconciliation, 1249
Red Cross. See International Red Cross
Redlining, 1250
Refugees and stateless people, 1250
Relativism, 1252
Religion, 1254
Religion and violence, 1258
Reparations for past social wrongs, 1260
Republic, 1262
Responsibility, 1264
Resumés, 1268
Retirement funds, 1269
Revelation, 1271
Revenge, 1273
Reverse racism, 1274
Revolution, 1275
Right and wrong, 1278
Right to die, 1282
Right to life, 1284
Rights and obligations, 1286
Robotics, 1289
Roe v. Wade, 1292
Role models, 1294
Roman Catholic priests scandal, 1296
Rorty, Richard, 1298
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 1298
Royce, Josiah, 1300
Rūmī, Jalāl al-Dīn, 1300
Russell, Bertrand, 1301
Rwanda genocide, 1302

S
Sales ethics, 1305
SALT treaties, 1306
Sanctions, 1309
Sankara, 1311
Santayana, George, 1312
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 1313
Schindler, Oskar, 1315
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 1316
Schweitzer, Albert, 1317
Science, 1317
Scientology, 1322
Scorched-earth policies, 1323
Scott v. Sandford, 1325
Scottsboro case, 1325
Second Sex, The, 1326
Secular ethics, 1326
Sedition, 1328
Sedition Act of 1798, 1328
Segregation, 1329
Self-control, 1331
Self-deception, 1333
Self-interest, 1334
Selfishness, 1336
Self-love, 1337
Self-preservation, 1339
Self-regulation, 1341
Self-respect, 1341
Self-righteousness, 1343
Sentience, 1343
Service to others, 1344
Sex therapy, 1345
Sexism, 1347
Sexual abuse and harassment, 1348
Sexual revolution, 1350
Sexual stereotypes, 1351
Sexuality and sexual ethics, 1353
Sexually transmitted diseases, 1357
Shaftesbury, third earl of, 1359
Sharīa, 1360
Shīa, 1361
Shinran, 1361
Shintō ethics, 1361
Sidgwick, Henry, 1363
Sierra Club, 1363
Sikh ethics, 1364
Silent Spring, 1367
Sin, 1367
Singer, Peter, 1371
Situational ethics, 1372
Skepticism, 1374
Slavery, 1376
"Slippery-slope" arguments, 1382
Smith, Adam, 1383
Social contract theory, 1385
Social Darwinism, 1387
Social justice and responsibility, 1389
Socialism, 1391
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 1393
Sociobiology, 1393
Socrates, 1395
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 1396
Song lyrics, 1397
Sophists, 1401
Sources of information. See News sources
South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 1401
Sovereignty, 1403
Soviet psychiatry, 1405
Sperm banks, 1406
Spinoza, Baruch, 1408
Stalin, Joseph, 1409
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 1412
State of nature, 1413
Stem cell research, 1415
Sterilization of women, 1418
Stewart, Martha, 1419
Stoic ethics, 1421
Stonewall Inn riots, 1423
Subjectivism, 1424
Suffrage, 1426
Sufism, 1427
Suicide, 1428
Suicide assistance, 1430
Summa Theologica, 1432
Sunnīs, 1434
Supererogation, 1434
Supreme Court, U.S., 1436
Supreme Court justice selection, 1439
Surrogate motherhood, 1440
Sustainability of resources, 1443

T
Tabloid journalism, 1446
Taboos, 1447
Taft-Hartley Act. See Labor-Management Relations Act
Tagore, Rabindranath, 1449
Talmud, 1449
Taxes, 1453
Technology, 1456
Telemarketing, 1464
Teleological ethics, 1465
Televangelists, 1467
Temperance, 1469
Temptation, 1471
Ten Commandments, 1472
Terrorism, 1474
Theory and practice, 1478
Theory of Justice, A, 1479
Therapist-patient relationship, 1480
Third World. See Developing world
Thomas Aquinas, 1482
Thoreau, Henry David, 1484
Three-strikes laws, 1485
Tillich, Paul, 1486
Tipping, 1487
Title IX, 1488
Tobacco industry, 1489
Tolerance, 1494
Torah, 1496
Torture, 1498
Toxic waste, 1502
Tragedy, 1503
Transcendentalism, 1504
Transplants and organ substitution. See Organ transplants
Treason, 1506
Treaty of Versailles, 1508
Triage, 1509
Truman Doctrine, 1509
Trustworthiness, 1509
Truth, 1511
Tutu, Desmond, 1515
Two Treatises of Government, 1516
Tyranny, 1517
Tzaddik, 1517

U
Unamuno y Jugo, Miguel de, 1519
Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1519
Unconditional surrender, 1520
UNESCO Declarationon the Human Genomeand Human Rights, 1522
Union of Concerned Scientists, 1523
United Nations, 1523
United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1527
United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1528
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons, 1529
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1529
Universalizability, 1530
Upanisads, 1530
Utilitarianism, 1531
Utopia, 1533

V
Value, 1535
Values clarification, 1539
Vardhamāna, 1541
Vedānta, 1541
Vegetarianism, 1543
Veterans' rights, 1545
Vice, 1546
Victims' rights, 1547
Vietnam War, 1549
Violence, 1553
Virtual reality, 1557
Virtue, 1559
Virtue ethics, 1563
Vivisection, 1564
Voltaire, 1565
Voting fraud, 1566

W
Wage discrimination, 1567
Wagner Act. See National Labor Relations Act
Walden, 1567
Wang Yangming, 1568
War, 1568
War crimes trials, 1573
Warranties and guarantees, 1574
Washington, Booker T., 1575
Watergate scandal, 1578
Weakness of will, 1578
Weapons research, 1579
Weber, Max, 1581
Welfare programs, 1582
Welfare rights, 1583
Whistleblowing, 1585
White-collar crime, 1586
Whitehead, Alfred North, 1586
Wickedness, 1587
Wiesel, Elie, 1588
Wilderness Act of 1964, 1589
Will, 1590
Wisdom, 1594
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1595
Wollstonecraft, Mary, 1595
Women's ethics, 1596
Women's liberation movement, 1598
Work, 1602
World Health Organization, 1606
World Society for theProtection of Animals, 1607
World Trade Organization, 1607
Wretched of the Earth, The, 1609

X
Xun Qing. See Xunzi
Xunzi, 1610

Y

Z
Zen, 1611
Zero-base ethics, 1612
Zhu Xi, 1612
Zhuangzi, 1613
Zionism, 1614
Zoroastrian ethics, 1615

Bibliography, 1619
Biographical Directory, 1639
Glossary, 1653
Nobel Peace Prize Winners, 1665
Organizations, 1669
Time Line of Primary Works in Moral and Ethical Philosophy, 1683

List of Entries by Category, III
Personages Index, XXI
Subject Index, XXXV


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