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Child Soldiers
Daoist Ethics
Deep Ecology
The Principles of Morals
Genocide and Democide
International Red Cross
Kant, Immanuel
Lotteries
Medical Research

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Ethics, Revised Edition
Editor: John K. Roth, Claremont McKenna College
December 2004 · 3 volumes · 1,773 pages · 8"x10"


ISBN: 978-1-58765-170-0
Print List Price: $364


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Ethics, Revised Edition
Index

A
AARP. See American Association of Retired Persons
ABA. See American Bar Association
Abbey, Edward, 456
Abelard, Peter, 1, 1164
Abolition, 1-3
Abortion, 3-9, 356; and infanticide, 734; and murder, 1284-1285; and pro-choice
movement, 1190-1191; and pro-life movement, 1204-1205; and right to life, 1284-1285;
Roe v. Wade, 1292-1293; and sterilization, 1419; and Supreme Court, U.S., 1438;
and surrogate motherhood, 1442
Abraham and Isaac, 396, 812, 1227, 1248, 1258, 1589; and Islam, 473
Absolutism, 10-11; and dictatorship, 381-382; Marx, Karl, on, 904; and permissible acts, 1111;
and pluralism, 1137; vs. relativism, 1252-1253
Absurd, The, 11
Absurd, Theater of the, 1504
Absurdity; and ambiguity, 117
Abū Bakr, 12; on holy war, 655
Abū Hanīfah, 12
Abuse, 12-14; of children, 217-218
Academic freedom, 14-15
Accidents; and employee safety, 438-440; and good samaritan laws, 602
Accountability, 16-17; and autonomy, 110-111. See also Responsibility
Accuracy in Media (AIM), 17-18, 1669
Accused, rights of, 18, 1548
Acheson, Dean, 882
Acid rain, 140
ACLU. See American Civil Liberties Union
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 19-21, 54, 143, 925, 1052, 1207, 1357,
1459, 1607; discovery of, 1320; and drug abuse, 409; drugs for, 1305; epidemics, 923;
fear of, 1117; and health care, 626; and homosexuality, 666; and pharmaceutical industry, 186;
and prisoners, 513; and prostitutes, 1213; research on, 1459; and Rwanda genocide, 1243; and
sexual revolution, 1351; in South Africa, 893
Acton, H. B., 1146
Acupuncture, 647, 1082
Adam and Eve, 473, 489, 517, 875, 1471, 1578; and collective guilt, 270; fall of, 109,
488, 970, 1114, 1602; sin of, 1367
Adams, Carol, 417
Adams, John, 317, 787, 1328; and Declaration of Independence, 357
Adarand Constructors v. Peńa (1995), 30
Addams, Jane, 1000, 1666
Adelson, John, 976
Adenauer, Konrad, 71
Adler, Felix, 283
Adler, Mortimer, 772
Adler, Samuel, 283
Adoption and surrogate motherhood, 1440, 1443
Adorno, Theodore, 339
Adultery, 22-23, 1355; and capital punishment, 193; and divorce, 397; and
Islam, 773, 775, 1360; and marriage, 399
Adulthood, 209, 225-227, 231
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Twain), 160
Adversary system, 23; and divorce, 399-400
Advertising, 24-27, 185; and children's television, 235-236; deceptive, 736; and
fraud, 535; infomercials, 736; and sales ethics, 1305-1306; and tobacco industry, 1490, 1493
Advertorials, 26
Advice columnists, 28-29
AEC. See Atomic Energy Commission
Aesthetics and art, 87
AFDC. See Aid to Families with Dependent Children
Affirmative action, 29-30, 184, 744; and inequality, 734; and Title IX, 1489
Afghanistan, 657, 792; refugees, 1251; Soviet invasion of, 268; U.N. invasion of, 1004;
U.S. intervention, 1525
AFL. See American Federation of Labor
Africa, 1609; adultery in, 22; and American abolition movement, 2; colonialism in, 1008, 1380;
and cultural genocide, 581; famines, 697; and imperialism, 272; and Pan-Africanism, 1082-1083;
promiscuity in, 1206; and slave trade, 1376
African Americans; and abolition, 1-2; and affirmative action, 29; and capital punishment, 196;
and citizenship, 1325; and civil disobedience, 249; Civil Rights movement, 252-254; and
Ku Klux Klan, 819; and lynching, 879-881; and men's movement, 931; and Nation of Islam, 996-997;
and National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 999; and Pan-Africanism, 1082-1083;
and redlining, 1250; and reparations for slavery, 78, 1260-1261; and reverse racism, 1274; and
Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1000; and Washington, Booker T., 1576. See also Civil
Rights movement; Slavery
African ethics, 31-36
African National Congress (ANC), 75, 892; and Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 1401
Agape, 210-211, 242, 814, 869-870
Age Discrimination Act of 1975, 51
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, 51
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1975, 440
Ageism, 37-38, 417, 1070; and Gray Panthers, 605
Agent Orange, 135, 1552
Aggression, 13, 38-40, 58, 120, 147, 582, 682, 865, 976, 1394, 1547;
and games, 582; and rape, 1239
Agreement for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic, 40-41
Agribusiness, 41
Agriculture; genetically modified foods, 575-577
Ahimsā, 42; and Jainism, 782
Ahrens, Heinrich, 1085
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 233
AIDS. See Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Air pollution; Clean Air Act, 256; and toxic waste, 1502
Akamba people, 34
Akan people, 33
Akbar the Great, 42
Akrasia, 601, 1578-1579
Alabama state bar, 837
Albanians, 817
Alchemy, 1457
Alcoholics Anonymous, 604, 612, 1471
Alcoholism, 46, 408-409, 568, 581, 1471-1472; and gambling, 868; and
Native Americans, 1016; and perfectionism, 1110
Alexander II, 1139
Alexander, Jane, 90
Alexander, Richard, 1394
Alexander the Great, 345
Algeria, 656
Ali, Noble Drew, 996
Alī ibn Abī Tālib, 43-44, 1361
Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798, 130, 872, 1328
Alienation, 44-45, 121, 173, 275, 422, 499, 930, 1558; and authenticity, 110
Almohad Empire, 112, 889
Althusser, Louis, 713
Altruism, 46-49; and egoism, 424; and egotism, 426; and generosity, 566; vs.
self-interest, 1334; vs. selfishness, 1336; and service to others, 1344; and sociobiology, 1394;
and utopia, 1534; and Zen Buddhism, 1611
Alzheimer's disease, 8, 569, 735
AMA. See American Medical Association
Amato, Joseph, 605
Ambulance chasers, 1113
American Friends Service Committee, 1666
American Academy of Religion, 1669
American Advertising Federation, 25
American Anti-Slavery Society, 2
American Arbitration Association, 82
American Association of Advertising Agencies, 24, 80
American Association of Engineering Societies, 80
American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists, 515
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), 38, 50-51, 1669
American Association of University Professors (AAUP), 15
American Bankers Association, 81
American Bar Association (ABA), 107, 261-262, 837-838, 1669; and capital punishment, 196;
ethical code, 471; and judicial conduct code, 796; and professional ethics, 1201
American Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), 912
American Catholic Philosophical Association, 1669
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 51-52, 1670; and American Nazi Party, 51;
on book banning, 162; and campaign finance reform, 190; and censorship, 1400;
and information access, 738
American College Test, 270
American Colonization Society, 2
American Counseling Association, 298
American Cyanamid Company, 1419
American Enterprise Institute, 1670
American Federation of Labor (AFL), 52; and Knights of Labor, 816
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), 1670
American Hospital Association, 914
American Humanist Association, 691, 1670
American Inns of Court, 52-53, 1670
American Institute of Architects, 80
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 80, 1341
American Library Association, 849
American Marketing Association (AMA), 898, 899
American Medical Association (AMA), 53, 1670; on abortion, 4, 1285; codes of ethics, 53,
138, 914, 1184, 1201; on death, 355; Principles of Medical Ethics, 1183
American Nazi Party, 51
American Philosophical Association (APA), 15, 1671
American Psychiatric Association, 741, 932, 934; on homosexuality, 28, 561, 662
American Psychological Association, 15, 298, 355, 934, 1216, 1347; code of conduct,
473, 1481; on homosexuality, 663, 666
American Revolution; and equality, 466; loyalty oaths, 873; and natural law, 1022
American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, 1671
American Society for Public Administration, 81
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), 62, 344, 998,
1671. See also Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 218
American Society of Human Genetics, 568, 1125
American Society of Newspaper Editors, 53-54, 1671
American Tobacco Company, 73
American Union Against Militarism, 51
American Woman Suffrage Association, 1426
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 20, 54, 387, 440, 1001
America's Watch, 689
Améry, Jean, 652
Ames, Shawn C., 994
Amin, Idi, 480
Amnesty International, 54-55, 296, 687, 689, 1671; Nobel Peace Prize, 1667; on Peltier
conviction, 1105; and Rwanda genocide, 1243; on torture, 1501
Amos, 629, 801
Anabaptism, 313, 1079-1080
Anarchism and treason, 1506
Anarchy, 55-57, 1040, 1068, 1331, 1549; and the Enlightenment, 1164; in Somalia, 687, 698
Anarchy, State, and Utopia (Nozick), 1054
ANC. See African National Congress
Ancestors; in African societies, 31, 33-35; and family, 511; in Japan, 1362
Andersen & Company, 329
Anderson, Marian, 1000
Andrade, Leandro, 1486
Andrews, E. Benjamin, 15
Andrews Sisters, 1397
Andrus, Ethel Percy, 50
Angell, Norman, 1666
Anger, 57-58, 69, 284, 400, 1094, 1096, 1546; and forgiveness, 530; of parents, 218; and rape, 1239
Animal consciousness, 59-60; and sentience, 1343
Animal Legal Defense Fund, 63
Animal Liberation Front, 63, 1108
Animal Liberation Movement, 61
Animal research, 60-62; and biofeedback, 143; and National Anti-Vivisection
Society, 998; and vivisection, 60, 1564
Animal rights, 62-66; and cruelty, 342-343; and endangered species, 441-442; and
Humane Society of the United States, 689; and Singer, Peter, 1371; and vegetarianism, 64,
1543-1544; and vivisection, 60, 1564; and World Society for the Protection of Animals, 1607
Animal Rights Mobilization, 64
Animal Welfare Act of 1966, 63
Animals, moral status of, 965-967
Annan, Kofi, 1045-1046, 1668; and Rwanda, 1302
Anomie, 413
Anthony, Susan B., 1426
Anthrax, 134-135
Anthropocentrism, 66
Anthropology, 67-69; and Native Americans, 1012-1013
Anthropomorphism of the divine, 69-70
Anti-Defamation League (ADL), 1672
Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, 549
Antigone (Sophocles), 246, 313, 1047, 1121, 1503
Antiquities Act of 1906, 316
Anti-Semitism, 70-72, 776; and concentration camps, 295; and Hitler, Adolf, 643; and
the Holocaust, 647-652; and Jackson, Jesse, 780; and Zionism, 1614
Antislavery International, 1378
Antislavery movement, 1378
Antisthenes, 345
Antitrust legislation, 72-73
AOL-Time Warner, 911
APA. See American Philosophical Association
Apartheid, 74-76, 128, 1232, 1515; and internal colonialism, 272; and Truth and
Reconciliation Commission, 1401-1402
Apel, Karl-Otto, 764, 1049
Aphrodite, 371
Apollo, 639
Apologizing for past wrongs, 76-78
Apology (Plato), 78-79; and meaning of life, 851
Applied ethics, 79-81; and Cohen, Randy, 266; and compassion, 284; and metaethics, 943;
and normative ethics, 943; vs. situational ethics, 1372; and slippery-slope arguments, 1382;
and technology, 1460
Arabs; in Iran, 770; in Iraq, 768; and Israel, 776-779
Arafat, Yasir, 1045, 1668
Arbitration, 81; and international justice, 754
Archard, David, 1089
Architectural Barriers Act of 1968, 387
Arendt, Hannah, 82, 270, 679
Argentina, 609; "dirty war," 389; Disappeared, the, 388-389
Arian, Edward, 91
Aries, Philippe, 227
Arif, Abdul Salam, 770
Aristippus of Cyrene, 347, 599; on hedonism, 631
Aristotelianism, 83-84; and motivation, 976; and Phenomenology of Spirit (Hegel), 1120;
and Thomas Aquinas, 1482
Aristotle, 83-86, 474; on absolutism, 49; on altruism, 49; on art, 87; on authority, 313;
and Averroës, 112; and Avicenna, 113; and Butler, Joseph, 48-49; on courage, 333-334, 1037;
on distributive justice, 392; on emotion, 284; on excellence, 495; on friendship, 552;
and Ghazālī, al-, 587; on golden mean, 596; on the good, 599, 766; on humility, 695;
on incommensurability, 729; on infanticide, 735; on intentionality, 750; on justice, 508;
on loyalty, 871; on moral principles, 958; on moral virtue, 1594; on natural law, 1016;
on natural rights, 1021; Nicomachean Ethics, 1037; on politics, 322; on practical reason, 1177;
and pride, 1182; on prudence, 1214; on public interest, 1221; on reason, 1466; on role models, 1294;
on self-control, 1331; on self-love, 1337-1339; and Socrates, 49; and Summa Theologica
(Thomas Aquinas), 1432-1433; theoretical framework, 474; on tragedy, 1503; on truth, 1514;
on value, 1112; on will, 1590; on wisdom, 1594; on work, 1603-1604
Arjuna, 127, 200, 636
Armenian genocide, 583, 585, 839
Armenians, 769, 1139
Arminianism, 14
Arminius, Jacobus, 1370
Army, U.S., and mercenary soldiers, 938
Army-McCarthy hearings, 882
Arnauld, Antoine, 1092
Arnold, Benedict, 1507
Arnoldson, Klas Pontus, 1665
Arrest records, 86-87
Art, 87-88; and censorship, 204-205; and postmodernism, 1168
Art and public policy, 88-91
Art of War, The (Sunzi), 92
Articles of Confederation, 319
Artificial insemination, 720; and eugenics, 483; and sperm banks, 1406-1407;
and surrogate motherhood, 1440
Artificial intelligence, 92-94; and robotics, 1289-1291
Arusha Accords, 1303
Āryadeva, 886
Asbestos, 184, 439, 1490-1491
Asceticism, 94-96; and Buddha, 174; and Cynicism, 345-346; and Jesus Christ, 789
Asclepius, 638-639, 852
Ashoka. See Asoka
Asian Americans; and Civil Rights movement, 254; and professions, 30
Asimov, Isaac, 1291-1292
Akoka, 96; and Buddhism, 178
ASPCA. See American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
Assassination, 96-100; of Alī ibn Abī Tālib, 43; and anarchism, 56;
and anarchy, 1506; and Central Intelligence Agency, 268; and espionage, 470; of Evers, Medgar, 485;
in Iraq, 770; of Kennedy, John F., 250; of King, Martin Luther, Jr., 391; of Sadat, Anwar, 656;
of Uthmān, 43, 1361
Assault statistics, 38
Asser, Tobias, 1665
Assisted suicide. See Suicide assistance
Assmann, Hugo, 1555
Associated Press, 1123
Association for Behavior Analysis, 119
Association for Practical and Professional Ethics, 1672
Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, 119
Association for the Prevention of Torture, 1672
Association of Southern White Women for the Prevention of Lynching, 880
Atatürk, 100-101
Atavism, 1547
Atheism, 101-102, 445, 646, 671; and Cynics, 346; and the Enlightenment, 445, 1163;
and existentialism, 499; and loyalty oaths, 873; and Nietzsche, Friedrich, 497; and
nihilism, 1041; Sartre, Jean-Paul, on, 498, 1313; and slavery, 1520; and Socrates, 78, 248;
and Spinoza, Baruch, 1409
Athens, 345, 494, 1254; and Aristotle, 49; citizenship in, 246, 365; constitutionalism, 321;
democracy in, 365; free speech in, 543; governing councils, 365, 1517; and Hipparchus, 97;
law in, 345; and Socrates, 14, 78, 871; Sophists, 1401
Athletes; incomes, 1195-1197; as role models, 1206, 1295
Atman, 856
Atom bombs, 102-104, 405, 1057, 1318, 1320, 1412, 1458; and the Cold War, 268; and
Einstein, Albert, 1317; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 584, 641-645; invention, 102-104; and
Manhattan Project, 104, 894, 1320; Pakistani, 1056; and scorched-earth tactics, 1324; Soviet, 1054
Atomic Energy Act of 1946, 105
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 105, 1059
Atomism, 460
Atonement and sin, 1368
Attār, 1301
Attica prison revolt, 337
Attorney-client privilege, 105-106, 297-298
Attorney misconduct, 106-107
Attorneys, 81, 261-262, 837-838
Auditors, 329-330
Audubon Society, 63
Augustine, Saint, 108-109, 324, 895; on absolutism, 707; City of God, The, 383,
1338, 1554; on dignity, 383; on euthanasia, 484; on evil, 487, 599; on free will, 488;
on holy war, 654; and just war theory, 610, 641, 800, 947, 1568; on lying, 877; and
Manichaeanism, 489, 877, 896; on murder, 1554; on natural law, 1017, 1019; on sin, 1369-1370;
on suicide, 1429; on values, 1537; on virtue, 1561; on will, 1590; on women, 680
Aum Shinrikyo, 136, 215
Aung San Suu Kyi, 1668
Aurobindo, Sri, 109-110; and Vedānta philosophy, 1542
Austin, John, 620, 797, 824
Australian Aborigines, 1255
Authenticity, 110; and Beauvoir, Simone de, 116; and existentialism, 497
Authoritarianism and Utopia (More), 1534
Authority; and conscientious objection, 313; and Milgram experiment, 945
Automobile safety, 990
Autonomy, 110-111; and abortion, 1294; and biotechnology, 148; and
experimentation, 501; and institutionalization of patients, 741; and mental illness, 935;
of patients, 915; and rape, 1243
Avalokitesvara, 112; and Shinran, 1361
Averroës, 48, 112-113, 587
Aversion training, 119
Avicenna, 48, 113; and Ghazālī, al-, 587
"Axis Sally," 1507
Ayer, A. J., 113-114, 265, 379, 1112; on emotivism, 437; on fact/value distinction, 505-506, 1538;
on moral discourse, 437, 1248
Azidothymidine (AZT), 925
Azikiwe, Nnamdi, 1084
AZT. See Azidothymidine

B
Baal Shem Tov, 622
Baath Party, 699, 770
Babeuf, Gracchus, 255, 276
"Baby Jane Doe," 385
Baby M., 1442
Babylon; and Hammurabi's code, 22, 193, 235, 336, 617-618, 628, 665, 972; and
Manichaeanism, 895; and Talmud, 789, 1449, 1452
Bacon, Francis, 115, 1457, 1478; and the Enlightenment, 444; and Hobbes, Thomas, 115
Bad faith, 115-116, 117, 121, 497-498, 500; Sartre, Jean-Paul, on, 1314
Bagehot, Walter, 123
Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda, 116
Bait-and-switch advertising, 900
Bajer, Fredrik, 1665
Bakke case. See University of California v. Bakke
Bakker, Jimmy, 672-673, 702, 1467-1468
Bakker, Tammy Faye, 1468
Bakr, Ahmad Hassan al-, 770
Bakunin, Mikhail; on anarchy, 56; on violence, 1556
Balch, Emily Greene, 1666
Baldwin, Roger, 51
Balfour Declaration of 1926, 1403
Baltimore, David, 1319
Banda, Hastings, 1084
Bandura, Albert, 39
Banking, 81, 739, 816, 1510
Baptism, 108, 901, 1370; and godparents, 595; and sin, 1370
Bar associations, 81, 107; and ethics, 106
Bar examinations, 107
Bard, Philip, 1094
Bard, Samuel, 914
Bargaining, 508; vs. compromise, 285; and consent, 314
Barkley, Charles, 1295
Barnard, Christiaan, 1072
Barron v. Baltimore (1833), 130
Barry, Brian, 1087
Barth, Karl, 1038
Baseball and advertising, 1383
Basil, Saint, 57
Battered child syndrome, 229
Beagle, HMS, 492
Beatles, 1397
Beauvoir, Simone de, 116-118, 1076; on authenticity, 110; on dignity, 384;
on love, 869; Second Sex, The, 1326
Beaverbook, Lord, 910
Beccaria, Cesare, 1485
Becker, Ernest, 869
Becker, Gary, 419
Beckett, Samuel, 1504
Beecher, Henry K., 1081
Beernaert, Auguste, 1665
Begin, Menachem, 1667
Behavior; and character, 208-209; and emotions, 1094
Behavior therapy, 118-119
Behaviorism, 119-121; and animal consciousness, 59; and choice, 239; and existentialism, 498;
founding of, 976; and motivation, 976
"Being," and Levinas, Emmanuel, 845
Being and Nothingness (Sartre), 121, 870, 1116, 1313
Belinski, Ivan, 1405
Bella Lewitzky Dance Foundation v. Frohnmayer et al. (1991), 207
Bellah, Robert, 279-280
Belmont Report, The, 923-924, 927-928
Belo, Carlos Filipe Ximenes, 1668
Bemis, Edward W., 15
Beneficence, 139, 299, 341, 501, 597, 805, 907, 914, 1177, 1436, 1560; and
experimentation, 501; and institutionalization of patients, 741; and medical ethics, 916-917
Benevolence, 47, 122-123, 706, 1170; and altruism, 48; and Butler, Joseph, 188; and
coercion, 264; and Confucianism, 283, 306, 928, 1559; and deities, 487-488; and
despotism, 322, 381; and generosity, 566-567; and Hume, David, 122, 680; and justice, 448;
and love, 1562; and public virtue, 674; and self-love, 1338. See also Charity
Benn, S. I., 1587
Bennenson, Peter, 55
Bennett, William J., 123, 1398; on multiculturalism, 982
Bentham, Jeremy, 10, 124, 315, 671, 1393; on animals, 343, 503, 966; on cognitivism, 771;
on criminal punishment, 195, 337; on distributive justice, 392; on hedonism, 599, 630-631,
681, 1049, 1466-1467, 1532; on incommensurability, 728; and Stuart, John, 948; on prudence, 1215;
on three-strikes laws, 1485; on utilitarianism, 1531-1532
Berdyayev, Nikolay, 124, 498-499
Bergson, Henri, 109, 125
Berkeley, George, 448, 708, 1425
Berkowitz, Leonard, 39
Berlin Conference, 1380
Berlin Wall, fall of, 269, 1051
Bernard, Claude, 923
Bernstein, Carl, 739, 1578
Berrigan, Daniel, 1550
Berrigan, Philip, 1550
Best practices and ethical codes, 472
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 1000
Better Business Bureau, 183
Betting on sports, 125-126
Betts v. Brady (1942), 589
Beyond Good and Evil (Nietzsche), 126-127, 433, 907, 1038-1039, 1174
Bhagavadgītā, 127-128, 636, 1258, 1542; and Ahimsā, 42; and
dharma, 200; and Gandhi, Mohandas K., 558; and karma, 808
Bhopal, India, 1502
Biafra, 697
Bible; and evangelicalism, 1467; assassination stories, 97; family values in, 517;
on greed, 606; and Israel, 778; and Nation of Islam, 997; on punishment, 1223; on suicide, 1429;
and Summa Theologica (Thomas Aquinas), 1432. See also Hebrew Bible
Bigotry, 128-129; and hate crimes, 624; and racial prejudice, 1228-1229; and racism, 1230-1234
Biko, Stephen, 75, 1402
Bilingual education, 129
Bilingual Education Act of 1968, 129
Bilingualism, 384
Bill of Rights, English. See English Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights, U.S., 130-132, 139, 251, 320, 331, 384, 610, 1022, 1188;
First Amendment, 528; and privacy, 1187; and public's right to know, 1222
Binet, Alfred, 749
Biocentrism, 451
Biochemical weapons, 132-136. See also Chemical weapons
Biocybernetic Universal System Tendency (BUST), 558
Biodiversity, 137, 140, 257, 362-363, 1444; and genetically modified foods, 577;
and rain forests, 1235
Bioethics, 137-141; biometrics, 144-146; cloning, 259-260; eugenics, 482; euthanasia, 483-484;
genetic testing, 572-574; genetically modified foods, 575-577; and in vitro fertilization, 720-722;
and medical ethics, 914-918; "playing god," 1136; Singer, Peter, 1371; stem cell research,
1415-1417; surrogate motherhood, 1440-1442
Biofeedback, 142-144
Biography, 1295
Biological Weapons Convention of 1972, 132, 135
Biometrics, 144-147
Bion of Borysthenes, 345
Biotechnology, 138, 147-149
Bioterrorism, 133, 1463
Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002, 190
Bipolar disorder, 431
Birth control, 149-151; abortion, 3-9; and Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), 609;
and pro-choice movement, 1190-1191; and pro-life movement, 1204-1205; and sexual
revolution, 1350; and sterilization, 1419
Birth defects, 151-153; and toxic waste, 1502
Bismarck, Otto von, and realpolitik, 1246
Bjřrnson, Bjřrnstjerne, 1045
"Black codes," 391, 1329, 1380
Black Consciousness Movement, 75
Black Muslims, 996. See Nation of Islam
Black, Hugo L., 162, 873, 1106
Black Panthers, 605
Blackmail; and egoism, 425; and espionage, 470; and homosexuality, 562
Blackmun, Harry A., 1107, 1292
Blair, Jayson, 1126-1127
Bloch, Ernest, 622
Blue Cross, 920
Blue Shield, 920
Blume, Judy, 160
Blunt, Anthony, 1507
Bly, Robert, 930
Boas, Franz, 67-68, 1012
Bock, Audie, 607
Bodhidharma, 153-154, 1611
Bodhisattva, 112
Bodhisattva ideal, 154-155
Body Shop, 453
Boehme, Jacob, 124
Boesky, Ivan, 741
Boethius, 156, 1017
Bok, Sissela, 878
Bonar, James, 964
Bonaventure, Saint, 308
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 156-157
Bonino, José Miguez, 1556
Book banning, 158-163
Book of Virtues: A Treasury of Great Moral Stories, The (Bennett), 123
Border Patrol, U.S., 715, 717
Bork, Robert, 407
Borlaug, Norman E., 1667
Bormann, Martin, 1061
Bosnia, 163-165; ethnic cleansing in, 687, 1229, 1259; and genocide, 583; human rights in, 687;
refugees, 1252; torture in, 1501; United Nations intervention in, 765, 1526
Bosnia-Herzegovina. See Bosnia
Bostron, Nick, 94
Botha, P. W., 893, 1515
Bouma, Hessel, 907
Bourgeois, Léon, 1665
Bowdler, Thomas, 160
Bowdlerism, 160
Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), 562, 1188
Boycotts, 165-166; and Civil Rights movement, 249-250, 1234, 1554; and sanctions, 1309
Boyd-Orr, John, 1666
Boyle, Robert, 865, 1457
Boylston, Zebdeil, 923
Bradlee, Ben, 160
Bradley, F. H., 166
Brahe, Tycho, 1479
Braid, James, 700
Braille printing, 54, 387, 810
Brain death, 166-167, 355, 857; and organ transplants, 1073
"Brain drain," 717
Brainwashing, 224, 1217, 1322, 1540; and Scientology, 1323
Brandeis, Louis D., 168, 768, 831, 1122; on privacy, 1187
Brandt, Willy, 1667
Brandt, Richard, 706
Branham, William, 510
Branting, Karl Hjalmar, 1665
Breast implants, 1490
Brentano, Franz, 750
Bretton Woods Institutions, 758
Breuning, Stephen E., 1319
Brezhnev, Leonid, 1307-1308
Briand, Aristide, 1665
Bribery, 168-169; and business ethics, 186; and lobbying, 863; and
multinational corporations, 983; and relativism, 1253
Bride-price and slavery, 1380
Briggs, Robert, 259
Broad, C. D., 1466
Bronowski, Jacob, 1458
Brookings Institution, 1672
Brooks, Roy L., 78
Brown, John, 3
Brown, Louise, 722
Brown, Robert McAfee, 1550
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 170-172, 391, 744, 798, 999, 1331, 1437;
and Civil Rights movement, 252; and Ku Klux Klan, 819; and Plessy v. Ferguson, 1137
Brownback, Sam, 1399
Brussels Conference of 1889-1890, 1380
Bryant, Kobe, 18
B'tselem, 1499
Buber, Martin, 172-173, 497, 622; I and Thou, 704; on mysticism, 987
Buchanan, James, 848
Buck, Carrie, 1418
Buckley v. Valeo (1976), 190
Buddha, 112, 154, 174-176, 324, 401, 604, 821, 1361; on asceticism, 95; and
Buddhism, 174-177; and compassion, 988, 1611; and duhkha, 1043; and five
precepts, 529; and Mani, 896; and nirvana, 1042-1043, 1560; on the self, 1611; virtue of, 1560
Buddhism, 176-178, 282; and asceticism, 95; and Asoka, 96; and Avalokitesvara, 112;
and Bodhidharma, 153; and Buddha, 174-175; and compassion, 154, 176-177, 402, 988, 1043,
1611; and Dalai Lama, 349-350; five precepts, 529; four noble truths, 532-533; and
golden rule, 597; and gratitude, 604; and Hindu caste, 199; and humanism, 690; and Islam, 792;
in Japan, 401; and karma, 809; and Mādhyamaka, 886; and Manichaeanism, 896;
and mysticism, 987-988; and Nāgārjuna, 991; and nihilism, 1043; and nirvana, 1042-1043;
and pacifism, 1079; Shingon school, 821; on suicide, 1429; and virtue, 1559; and
Zoroastrianism, 1617. See also Zen Buddhism
Buffalo, 1009; slaughter of, 1015-1016
Buisson, Ferdinand, 1665
Būkhārī, al-, 178, 616
Bullfighting, 343, 1538, 1607
Bultmann, Rudolf, 1370, 1373
Bunche, Ralph J., 1000, 1666
Bunyan, John, 1230
Burckhardt, Jacob, 674
Burger, Warren, 794, 1107; and American Inns of Court, 53
Burgess, Guy, 1507
Burke, Edmund, 179; on conservatism, 316-317; on the French Revolution, 1276; on honor, 674
Burns, Lucy, 1427
Burr, Aaron, 1507
Burundi, 1228
Bush, George H. W., 1189; and Commission on Federal Ethics Law Reform, 478
Bush, George W., 171, 991; and bioethics, 1459; campaign advertising, 26; and
counterterrorism, 1477; election of, 1566; on gay marriage, 563; and homeland defense, 657;
and stem cell research, 569, 926, 1416-1417; and taxes, 1454, 1456
Bush, Vannevar, 895, 1321
Bush v. Gore (2000), 1566
Bushido, 179-181, 675
Business; antitrust legislation, 72-73; downsizing, 403; telemarketing, 1464
Business ethics, 181-187; advertising, 24-27, 185; capitalism, 197-198; corporate
compensation, 326-327; corporate responsibility, 328; corporate scandal, 328-330;
covert actions, 335; and electronic surveillance, 429; and the environment, 450;
hiring practices, 640; marketing, 898-899; minimum-wage laws, 949; multinational
corporations, 983-984; price fixing, 1181; and professional ethics, 1201; profit
taking, 1203; sales ethics, 1305; and self-regulation, 1341; trustworthiness, 1510; and
wage discrimination, 1567; warranties and guarantees, 1574
Business Roundtable, 80
Butler, Joseph, 187-188, 284, 1339; on altruism, 48-49; on benevolence, 1338-1339;
on compassion, 284; on moral sense, 965; on self-love, 1338
Butler, Judith, 564
Butler, Nicholas Murray, 1666
Butler, Robert, 37
Buzhardt, J. Fred, 1189
Bystanders, 188; and genocide, 585; and police brutality, 1141
Byzantine Empire, 792

C
Cabet, Étienne, 276
Cable News Network (CNN), 911
Calculus, discovery of, 1320
California; and affirmative action, 30; no-fault divorce law, 399;
sterilization laws, 1418; three-strikes laws, 1485-1486
California Family Law Act of 1970, 399
Caligula, 98, 158, 345, 544
Calley, William, 1552
Callicles, 1252
Calvin, John, 48, 99, 189; and Augustine, Saint, 108; on duty, 1435; on equality, 465;
and predestination, 1163; on sin, 1370; on work, 1605
Calvinism, 15; and Edwards, Jonathan, 422; and freedom of thought, 14; and predestination, 1581
Camara, Dom Helder, 1555
Cambodia, 382, 1501, 1552; genocide, 583, 1527
Camp David Accords, 779
Campaign finance reform, 189-191
Campbell, C. A., 963
Camus, Albert, 102, 191-192, 487, 497, 1042, 1076, 1248, 1537; and the absurd, 11, 490;
on the "common good," 275; on integrity, 332; on meaning of life, 849; on suicide, 849, 1428
Canada; bilingualism, 384; human rights policies, 384
Cancer, 143, 356, 488, 568, 666, 1057, 1082, 1119, 1357, 1407, 1544;
and genetic engineering, 569; and smoking, 1490, 1492, 1494
Cannibalism, 192-193, 346, 506, 581, 697-698, 1447-1448; "moral," 1236
Cannon, Carroll, 1102
Cannon, Nona, 1102
Cannon, Walter, 1094
Canons of Judicial Ethics, 796
Canons of Professional Ethics, 837
Cánovas del Castillo, Antonio, 56
Čapek, Karel, 1289
Capital punishment, 193-196; in China, 381; and custom, 344; and adultery, 22; and treason, 194
Capitalism, 197-198, 1149; advertising, 24-27; antitrust legislation, 72-73; and
democracy, 366; and greed, 274; Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, on, 840; Marx, Karl, on, 903, 905;
and postmodernism, 1167; and profit economy, 1203; and profit taking, 1203; and
slavery, 1378; and stock market, 1270
Caracalla, 246
Cardinal virtues. See Virtue
Care ethics, 122, 1117
Carens, Joseph, 717
Carlyle, Thomas, 1505
Carmichael, Stokely, 390
Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, 1672
Carritt, Edgar F., 368
Carson, Rachel, 503, 1458; Silent Spring, 455
Carter, Jimmy, 1045, 1307; and Amnesty International, 55; Nobel Peace Prize, 1668;
and SALT treaties, 1308; and stem cell research, 1415
Cartesian method, 371, 1512, 1591
Cartwright, Samuel, 1377
Carver, George Washington, 1000
Casement, Roger, 1507
Casey, John, 102
Cassin, René, 1667
Caste system, Hindu, 128, 199-201, 637, 993, 1154, 1541; and Jainism, 781;
and karma, 808; and Sikhism, 1364
Castiglione, Baldassare, 481
Castro, Fidel, 268
Casual Friday, 406
Casuistry, 201-202, 308, 628, 1092; and medical ethics, 917
Categorical imperative; and Kant, Immanuel, 1208; and reason, 804; Sidgwick, Henry, on, 1363
Catholic Church. See Roman Catholic Church
Catholic University of America, 15
Catt, Carrie Chapman, 1427
CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Cecil, Robert, 1666
Celebrities, 1108; and media, 429, 1446-1447; and photojournalists, 1123
Celibacy, 529; in Buddhism, 1361; and Hinduism, 636; and Roman Catholic priests, 1296-1297
Cell phones and copyright infringement, 326
Cell-phone etiquette, 202-203
Celsus, 922
Censorship, 203-207; and art, 87; and motion picture ratings systems, 973-974; and
Pentagon Papers, 1106; and political correctness, 1143; and song lyrics, 1397-1400
Center for Bioethics, 1459
Center for Business Ethics, 186
Center for Disease Control, 134
Center for Environmental Philosophy, 1672
Center for Professional Responsibility, 1673
Center for Science in the Public Interest, 1673
Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions, 472
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); and AIDS, 19
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 160, 671, 1189; and the Cold War, 267; in Guatemala, 268
Cercidas of Megalopolis, 345
CERES. See Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies
Cesarean sections, 208
CFC. See Chlorofluorocarbons
Ch'an. See Chan
Chamberlain, Austen, 1665
Chamberlain, Houston, 1030
Chamberlain, Neville, 675
Chambers, Erve, 69
Chance, 874
Chāndogya Upanisad, 42
Chandragupta, 96
Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942), 206
Character, 208-210; and humility, 694; and hypocrisy, 702; and integrity, 746; and
laziness, 832; and loyalty, 871; and luck, 956; and lying, 877-878; and merit, 940-941;
and pride, 1182; and promises, 1208; and reason, 1433; and selfishness, 1336
Charity, 210-212; and benevolence, 122; and generosity, 566; and Islam, 773-774, 979;
and mysticism, 988; and poverty, 1170; and United Nations, 1524. See also Benevolence
Charles V, 203
Charles Martel, 792
Chase, Salmon P., 1379
Cheating, 212-214, 676; and character, 209; and plagiarism, 1127-1129
Chechyna, 100
Chelyabinsk accidents, 457
Chemical weapons and warfare, 103, 135, 214-217, 1320. See also Biochemical weapons
Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, 135, 215
Cheney, Dick, 796
Cheney, Lynne, 1400
Chenrezig, 112
Chernobyl accident, 457, 1057
Chesterfield, Lord, 481
Child abuse, 217-219, 233; and family values, 517; and gay adoption, 563; and parenting, 1089
Child Abuse and Prevention Act of 1974, 229
Child custody, 514, 901; and divorce, 400; and drug use, 153; and gay rights,
662, 1001, 1356; joint, 225; and men's movement, 930; and mental illness, 934; and
surrogate motherhood, 1442
Child custody suits, 222, 399-400, 722, 1217
Child labor, 186, 219-221, 230-231, 506, 816; and Amnesty International, 55; and
multinational corporations, 984; and slavery, 1380; and welfare, 1582
Child pornography, 89, 1159
Child protective services (CPS), 228-229
Child psychology, 221-222
Child soldiers, 223-224
Child support, 224-225
Child welfare, 227-229, 233, 280
Childbirth; cesarean sections, 208
Childhood, 226-227, 231, 239, 413, 680, 1301
Children, 226-230; and advertising, 26, 185, 235-236; and ageism, 38; aggressive
behavior of, 39; and Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1528-1529; education of, 953-954;
and genetic testing, 574; and income distribution, 726-727; and infanticide, 734-735;
parenting of, 1089; and United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1528
Children's Bureau, 230-231, 1673
Children's rights, 231-234
Children's television, 234-236
Children's Television Act of 1990, 234
Chiles, Lawton, 1493
Chin, Mel, 89
China; capital punishment in, 196; Confucianism, 303; Daoism, 352-353; emperors, 381;
famines, 520, 697; feudalism, 304, 1613; Japanese invasion, 135; and Mao Zedong, 382;
Mohism, 978; scorched-earth tactics in, 1324; sterilization in, 1419; and Tibet, 349-350
Chinese Americans, 512
Chirac, Jacques, 1459
Chivalry, 237-238, 675
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 1461
Choice, 96, 238-240, 479, 539, 601, 680-681, 1164; Aristotle on, 86; and
authenticity, 110; and autonomy, 1116; and behaviorism, 119-120; and coercion, 263; and
consent, 314-315; and cost-benefit analysis, 332; and determinism, 373; and dilemmas, 384-385;
and economic analysis, 419; and existentialism, 498, 851, 853, 1373; and generosity, 567;
and the good, 599; and incommensurability, 728; and individualism, 730; and inequality, 734;
Kant, Immanuel, on, 806; Kierkegaard, Sřren, on, 426, 812; and lifestyles, 859, 1155;
and moral responsibility, 963, 967, 969, 1278; and prisoner's dilemma, 1185-1186;
Rawls, John, on, 1480; Sartre, Jean-Paul, on, 1313-1314; and Stoicism, 1421-1422; and
triage, 1509; and will, 1578-1579; and Zoroastrianism, 1615. See also Pro-choice movement
Choiceless choices, 240
Choices, contracausal, 373
Cholera, 135, 698, 1607
Christian Coalition, 89
Christian ethics, 241-243; godparents, 595; just war theory, 800; and situational ethics, 1373;
and slavery, 1519
Christian Humanism, 691
Christian Science, 487, 510-511
Christianity, 241-243, 282; and abortion, 4; in Africa, 35-36; and violence, 1258;
and anger, 57; and asceticism, 95; and Augustine, Saint, 108; and birth control, 150;
and casuistry, 202; and censorship, 203; and charity, 211; and citizenship, 246; and
conscience, 968; and conscientious objection, 313; and courage, 334; and cruelty to
animals, 343; and the Enlightenment, 446; and ethical monotheism, 473; and existentialism, 1370;
and family values, 517-518; and free will, 601; and friendship, 552; and golden rule, 597;
and gratitude, 604; and greed, 606; and holy war, 654; and human rights, 685; and humility, 694;
and Islam, 792; and Jesus Christ, 787-788; and Jews, 70; and love, 869; and Luther, Martin, 876;
and Manichaeanism, 896; and mercy, 939; and military ethics, 946; and morality, 968;
and mysticism, 987; and normative ethics, 1048; and pacifism, 98, 1079-1080; and personal
relationships, 1114; and pride, 1182; and primitive communism, 276; and the Qurān, 1226;
and self-righteousness, 1343; and slavery, 1231-1232, 1378; and suicide, 1429; and
televangelists, 1467-1468; and Tillich, Paul, 1486; and work, 1605; and Zoroastrianism, 1617
Christmas nativity scenes, 244
Chu Hsi. See Zhu Xi
Chuang Chou. See Zhuangzi
Chuang-tzu. See Zhuangzi
Chün Tzu. See Junzi
Churchill, Winston S., 1169, 1520
Church-state separation, 243-245; and Magna Carta, 888
CIA. See Central Intelligence Agency
Cicero, 245, 544; on conscience, 308; on custom, 345; on formalism, 600; on
friendship, 552-553; on gratitude, 604; on just war, 800; on natural law, 1017,
1019, 1021; on self-control, 1332
CIO. See Congress of Industrial Organizations
Circumcision, 34
Citizenship, 245-247; and civic virtue, 1344; and democracy, 366; and slavery, 1380
City of God, The (Augustine), 108, 383, 1554; on self-love, 1338
Civil disobedience, 247-250, 837, 1555; and Greenpeace, 609; and Mandela, Nelson, 892;
Thoreau, Henry David, on, 1484, 1554
Civil liberties, 251, 1144; and libertarianism, 847-848; and Magna Carta,
887-888; and privacy, 1187
Civil Liberties Act of 1988, 77
Civil rights, 251-252; and Americans with Disabilities Act, 54; and artificial
intelligence, 93; Commission on Civil Rights, U.S., 273; and Constitution, U.S., 320;
and integration, 743-745; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 751;
and Jackson, Jesse, 780; and police brutality, 1139-1141
Civil Rights Act of 1866, 1380
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 250, 440; and affirmative action, 29; and business ethics, 184;
and Civil Rights movement, 254; and disability rights, 54, 388; and discrimination, 391;
and equal pay for equal work, 462; and gay rights, 561
Civil Rights movement, 252-254; and civil disobedience, 249; and equality, 466; and
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 814-815; and National Association for the Advancement
of Colored People, 999; and violence, 1554
Civil service, 726
Civil Service Reform Act of 1883, 190
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, 496
Civil War, U.S.; and abolition movement, 2; and electronic surveillance, 428; and
Emancipation Proclamation, 2, 434-435, 862; and Lincoln, Abraham, 434-435, 862; and
loyalty oaths, 874; and Native Americans, 1016; scorched-earth tactics, 1324; and
temperance movement, 1469; and total war, 1521; veteran benefits, 1545
Civil wars and peacekeeping missions, 1103
Civitas, 544
Clap, Thomas, 15
Clark, Kenneth, 1000
Clarke, Samuel, 965
Class action lawsuits, 1194
Class structure and slavery, 1378
Class struggle, 255-256; and Marxism, 905
Classical liberalism, 846
Claudius, 544
Clausewitz, Carl von, 578; On War, 1069
Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, 73
Clean Air Act of 1963, 256-257
Clean Air Act of 1977, 455
Clean Air Act of 1990, 1153
Clean Water Act of 1972, 140, 257
Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966, 257
Cleanthes of Assos, 1340
Cleisthenes, 544
Cleland, John, 159
Clemency and erroneous convictions, 469
Cleveland, Grover, sexual improprieties of, 257
Clinton, Bill, 140, 257-258, 573, 738, 892, 1417; and bioethics, 1459; honesty of, 672;
and Kosovo, 818; and Lewinsky, Monica, 258; and NEA, 90-91; and stem cell research, 1415;
and tobacco industry, 1490
Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 257
Clitoridectomy, 34, 581
Cloning, 259-261, 570, 678, 922, 926; of humans, 926; reproductive, 260; and stem
cell research, 1416; therapeutic, 260
CNN. See Cable News Network
Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES), 453
Cocaine, 153, 408; Freud, Sigmund, on, 1220
Code of Professional Responsibility, 261-262, 838
Code Pink, 911
Codes of civility, 262
Codes of conduct; and telemarketing, 1464
Coercion, 263-264; vs. consent, 315; and free enterprise, 536; and freedom, 540; and taxes, 727
Coetzee, J. M., 995
Coffin, William Sloane, 1550
Cognitivism, 264-265, 1112; and is/ought distinction, 771; and metaethics, 944
Cohen, Hermann, 806-807
Cohen, Randy, 266, 391
Cold War, 266-269; and antislavery movement, 1380; and biochemical weapons, 135; and
doctrine of unconditional surrender, 1522; and electronic surveillance, 429; espionage,
1507; foreign policy agendas, 376; and mercenary soldiers, 937; and mutually assured
destruction, 985; and North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1050; and nuclear arms
race, 1054-1056; and peacekeeping missions, 1102-1103; and Potsdam Conference, 1169;
and SALT treaties, 1306-1308; and United Nations, 1524
Cole v. Richardson (1972), 873
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 1505
Collateral damage, 800
Collective bargaining, 496, 1001; and free-riding, 537; and National Labor Relations Act, 1001
Collective guilt, 269-270
Collectivism, 497, 541-542, 731, 1147; and communism, 276, 520, 1411; and property, 1210
College applications, 270-271
Colonialism, 271-273, 580, 1007-1008, 1251, 1404, 1609; in Africa, 36, 1008, 1082;
and developing world, 376; in India, 312, 558, 1154; in Middle East, 792; and nationalism, 1007;
resistance to, 1006; in Rwanda, 1302; and Social Darwinism, 1387
Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), 912
Columbine High School massacre, 1399
Columbus, Christopher, 1013
Commission on Civil Rights, U.S., 273-274
Commission on Interracial Cooperation, 880
Common Cause, 191
Common good, 274-275; and public interest, 1221. See also Good, the
Communication and terrorism, 1474
Communism, 276-277; and censorship, 203; and the Cold War, 266-268; and
collectivism, 276, 520, 1411; and Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, 839-842; and Marx, Karl, 903-904;
and Marxism, 905; and neoconservatism, 316; and professional ethics, 1201; and slavery, 1380;
Soviet, 296
Communist Manifesto, The (Marx and Engels), 277-279, 421, 903, 906,
1556; censorship of, 203
Communist Party of the U.S.A., 874
Communitarianism, 279-281; and consent, 315; and drug testing, 410; and
immigration, 715; and televangelism, 1468
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, 1250
Comoro Islands, 937
Comparative ethics, 281-283
Compassion, 47, 95, 283-285; and Avalokitesvara, 112; and Buddhism, 154, 176-177,
402, 988, 1043, 1611; and Confucianism, 928; and health care, 1183; and mercy, 938-939;
Plato on, 932; Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, on, 1414; and self-righteousness, 1343; and
utopia, 1534; and value, 1535-1537
"Compassionate Conservatism," 658
Compatibilism, 1266, 1591-1592; and accountability, 16; and determinism, 373; and
responsibility, 1265-1266
Competition and charity, 211
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, 1502
Compromise, 285-286; and Christianity, 242
Compulsory labor and slavery, 1380
Computer crime, 286-290, 291-292; and electronic mail, 427; and hackers, 287, 289,
326, 738, 1461; and identity theft, 709-711; and Internet piracy, 761-762; viruses, 93
Computer technology, 293-294; databases, 290-291; electronic mail, 427; and ethical
dilemmas, 1461; and information access, 736-738; and Internet chat rooms, 760; and
robotics, 1289-1291; and virtual reality, 1557-1558
Comstock, Anthony, 89
Comstock Act of 1873, 150, 159, 1159
Comte, Auguste, 294-295; on Humanism, 690
Concentration camps, 295-296; Bosnia, 164; and choiceless choices, 241; French Jews in, 71;
and Nazi Germany, 1029, 1031
Concupiscence, 1, 1369-1370
Condé the Great, 1408
Condors, 441, 1607
Confessing Church, 156
Confessions (Augustine), 108, 324
Confidentiality, 297-299; and AIDS, 20; attorney-client privilege, 105; in child
psychology, 222; and computer databases, 290; and diagnosis, 380; and ethical codes, 471;
and mental illness, 934; and mentoring, 936; and therapist-patient relationship, 1481;
and whistleblowing, 1585
Conflict and academic freedom, 14
Conflict of interest, 80, 299-300; and advertising, 25; and egoism, 424; and ethical
codes, 471; government officials, 477-478; and lobbying, 863
Conflict resolution, 301-302; and arbitration, 81; and compromise, 285; and values
clarification, 1539-1540
Conformity and authenticity, 110
Confucianism, 303-306; and chaos, 826; and Daoism, 352; and golden rule, 318, 597; and
humanism, 690; in Japan, 1362; and Mencius, 928; and military ethics, 947; and morality, 283;
and Mozi, 977; and virtue, 1559; and Wang Yangming, 1568; Weber, Max, on, 1581;
and Zhu Xi, 1612; and Zhuangzi, 1613
Confucius, 303-305, 1559, 1568; on human nature, 303; and Mencius, 928; on
reciprocity, 604; on virtue, 1559-1560; and Xunzi, 1610; and Zhu Xi, 1612
Congo, 1103; and United Nations, 1524
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 52
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 253-254, 308, 1673
Congress, U.S., 306-308; antitrust legislation, 72-73; and the arts, 88-90; and
automobile safety, 990; and Constitution, U.S., 320; and copyright, 324; and corporate
scandal, 330; and endangered species, 441; immigration law, 718; labor legislation, 506,
1001; on loyalty, 872; and lynch law, 880; and minimum-wage laws, 949; and song
lyrics, 1398; and stem cell research, 1416; and Supreme Court, U.S., 1438; and tobacco
industry, 1490; and veterans' rights, 1545
Conscience, 308-312, 968; Butler, Joseph, on, 187-188, 965; and citizenship, 246-247;
and contractualism, 205; Emerson, Ralph Waldo, on, 436; freedom of, 55, 528, 540, 543,
687, 787, 982, 1163, 1187, 1228; and guilt, 613; and law, 828-829; and morality, 969;
and natural law, 969; and self-deception, 1333; and Socrates, 499
Conscientious objection, 51, 313-314; vs. civil disobedience, 248
Consent, 314-315; and Declaration of Independence, 357; and government, 74.
See also Doctrine of informed consent
Consequentialism, 315-316; and Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 156; and censorship, 204; and duty, 414;
and national security, 1004-1005; and teleology, 1466
Conservation, 316, 363, 418; and biodiversity, 137; and environmentalism, 138; and
National Park System, 1003; and Nature Conservancy Council, 1027; and resources,
1443-1444; and Wilderness Act of 1964, 1589
Conservatism, 316-317; and Accuracy in Media, 17; and Burke, Edmund, 179; and
libertarianism, 847; lifestyles, 859; and political correctness, 1142
Consistency, 318-319; and irrationality, 318-319; and reason, 318; and will, 1579
Constantine, 1079
Constitution, U.S., 319-321; Bill of Rights, 130-131; and Congress, 306; on copyright, 324;
establishment clause, 244; interpretations of, 1438; and loyalty oaths, 873; and
national security, 1004; proposed Victims' Rights Amendment, 1548; and right to know, 548;
and slavery, 435, 861; and sovereignty, 1404; and Supreme Court, U.S., 1436, 1439; on treason, 1506
Constitutional government, 321-322; and Bill of Rights, 130-131; and
Constitution, U.S., 319-320; and English Bill of Rights, 443; and Enlightenment, 444;
and Magna Carta, 887-888
Consumerism, 181, 323, 361; and International Organization of Consumers Unions, 758
Contextual ethics. See Situational ethics
Continental Congress, 357
Contractarianism, 368
Contracts, rights, and obligations, 1287
Contractualism and censorship, 204
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment
or Punishment, 1021, 1501
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1528-1529
Conversion of one's system of beliefs, 323-324
Conway, Ruth, 1460
Cooper, Anthony Ashley. See Shaftesbury, third earl of
Cooper, Thomas, 15
"Cop Killer," 1400
Copernicus, Nicholas, 1275, 1408
Copyright, 324-326, 748; and "fair use," 762; and Internet piracy, 761-762; and
Napster, 994; and plagiarism, 1126, 1128
CORE. See Congress of Racial Equality
Corporate compensation, 182, 326-328
Corporate responsibility, 16, 328; employee safety, 438-440; hiring practices, 640
Corporate scandal
Corporate scandals, 328-330; and ethical codes, 471-472
Corrigan, Mairead, 1667
Corruption, 331-332; and politics, 1146; and power, 1146; and white-collar crime, 1586
Cost-benefit analysis, 182, 332-333; and national security, 1004-1005; and pollution permits, 1153
Council on Foreign Relations, 1673
Counterterrorism, 1474-1475
Country Music Foundation, 91
County of Allegheny v. American Civil Liberties Union (1989), 244
Courage, 333-334; and heroism, 634-635
Covert action, 335-336
Cowardice, 1560; Aristotle on, 85; vs. courage, 333-334; vs. heroism, 635;
Thomas Aquinas on, 1483
Cows, 1544; cloning of, 570; and Hinduism, 638; hormone treatments of, 575; PETA on, 1108
CPS. See Child protective services
Cranston, Alan, 307
Crates of Thebes, 345
Credibility and lobbying, 863
Credit ratings and identity theft, 709
Cremer, William, 1665
Crick, Francis, 568, 570
Crime; and computers, 286-289; and deterrence, 374; and "everyone does it"
neutralizations, 486; and gambling, 125; gangs, 559-560; identity theft, 709-711;
and paroled prisoners, 1090
Crime rates, 1224, 1485
Crimes against humanity; and International Criminal Court, 752
Criminal justice system; and AIDS, 20; erroneous convictions, 469; Gault,
In re
, 561; and jury system, 799
Criminal punishment, 336-338; capital punishment, 193-196; and mental illness, 935
Criminality and corruption, 331
Critical theory, 338-340, 378
Croatian refugees, 1252
Cromwell, Oliver, 22
Crowley, Mart, 667
Cruel and unusual punishment, 194; and English Bill of Rights, 443; and
three-strikes laws, 1486
Cruelty, 340-341, 488, 1536; to animals, 60, 62-63, 342-344, 689, 923, 998, 1108,
1393, 1538, 1564, 1607; Machiavelli, Niccolň, on, 883-884; and political realism, 1146;
and torture, 1498-1499, 1501
Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876, 60
Crusades, 238, 654-655; and Islam, 792; and Zionism, 778
Cryonics, 356
C-sections. See Cesarean sections
Cultural anthropology, 394; and absolutism, 10
Cultural relativism, 11, 68, 201, 670, 983, 1252-1253; and diversity, 394; and
religion, 1255. See also Ethical relativism; Relativism
Culture; and anthropologists, 67; and custom, 344
Curran, Charles E., 15
Curses, 35, 112; divine, 1229; and Noah, 1231; and taboos, 1448
Custom, 344-345; and rights and obligations, 1288; and taboos, 1447-1448
Cybernetics, 1458
Cynicism, 345-347
Cyrenaics, 347-348; and hedonism, 631
Czolgosz, Leon, 56

D
Daily Graphic, 1446
Daily Mirror, 1446
Dalai Lama, 349-350; Nobel Peace Prize, 1667; and universal responsibility, 270
Dalkon Shield, 1490
Dallaire, Roméo, 351-352, 1304
D'Amato, Alphonse, 307
Daniels, Norman, 941
Dante Alighieri, 1114
Daoism, 352-353; and environmental movement, 455; and Laozi, 825-826; and
Manichaeanism, 896; and Zen Buddhism, 1611; and Zhuangzi, 1613
Darwin, Charles, 354, 394, 492, 1025; and Beagle, 492; and Dewey, John, 683;
evolutionary theory of, 491-493; on facial feedback, 1095; influence of, 1318; and
Social Darwinism, 1387-1388
Data Encryption Standard (DES), 738
Databases and biometrics, 145-146
Dawes, Charles G., 1665
Dawkins, Richard, 46, 284, 1394
Dayton Peace Agreement, 164
De, 353
de Klerk, F. W., 76, 893, 1668
de Man, Paul, 359-360
DEA. See Drug Enforcement Agency
Dead Sea Scrolls, 943
De-alienation, 44
Death, 166-167, 355-356, 854-857; defined, 854-856; and existentialism, 499; and
karma, 808; and organ transplants, 1071; and right to die, 1282-1283; and suicide, 1428-1429
"Death instinct," 1553, 1588
Decalogue, 629, 969, 972, 1448, 1472. See also Ten Commandments
Deception in war, 92
Decision making and casuistry, 201
Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, 915, 923
Declaration of Independence, 319, 357-358, 652, 659, 865, 1022, 1025, 1277,
1288, 1384, 1404; and democracy, 365; and egalitarianism, 423; and the Enlightenment, 446;
and human rights, 684; and Jefferson, Thomas, 787; and Lincoln, Abraham, 862
Declaration of Sentiments, 1413
Deconstruction, 358-360, 369, 823; and Derrida, Jacques, 369; and nihilism, 359-360
Deep Blue, 1291
Deep ecology, 360-362; and ecofeminism, 418; and environmental movement, 456
Defamation, 845
Deforestation, 362-364
Deism, 364-365, 445, 491, 690; and philosophes, 1163; and Voltaire, 1565
Democide, 583-585; defined, 583. See also Genocide
Democracy, 365-367; and citizenship, 366; and covert action, 335-336; and free speech, 204;
and national security, 1003; and taxes, 1453; and trade, 1607; and World Trade Organization, 1608
Democracy Rising, 991
Democratic Party and liberalism, 317
Demosthenes, 345
Dempsey, Jack, 1196
Denard, Bob, 937
Denial and genocide, 585
Deontology, 367-368, 1335; and absolutism, 10; and altruism, 1066; and
contractarianism, 368; and duty, 413; and Hippocrates, 638; of Kant, Immanuel, 475, 532,
600, 878, 970, 1138, 1530; and media ethics, 1036; and pluralism, 1137; and right to
die, 1283; and self-interest, 1335; vs. teleology, 1466-1467; vs. utilitarianism, 1532
Deoxyribonucleic acid. See DNA
Depression; and abuse, 13; and anger, 58; and electroshock therapy, 430-431; and
laziness, 832; Mill, John Stuart, and, 1067; and pessimism, 1118-1119; and psychosurgery,
865; and rape, 1241; and suicide, 430
Derrida, Jacques, 369-370; and deconstruction, 358-359
Descartes, René, 113, 370-371, 1092, 1120, 1393, 1408, 1457; on cruelty to animals, 342;
on dualism, 371, 1590-1591; and Gewirth, Alan, 586; and Locke, John, 866; and mathematics, 476;
and Spinoza, Baruch, 1408; on truth, 1512; on will, 1591
Descriptive ethics, 1048-1049
Desegregation, 744, 999; Brown v. Board of Education, 170-171; and Civil Rights
movement, 252-254; of U.S. military, 744
Desire, 371-372; and Buddhism, 533; and practical reason, 1177
Despotism and benevolence, 465
Destutt de Tracy, Antoine, 712
Determinism; and fatalism, 523; and freedom, 373-374; and Islam, 979; and
morality, 970; and responsibility, 1264-1266
Deterrence, 374-375; and capital punishment, 195-196; and chemical weapons, 135;
and Cold War, 1051
Developing world, 375-377; and business ethics, 186; and colonialism, 271; and
International Monetary Fund, 758; and poverty, 1171; and World Trade Organization, 591, 1607
Dewey, John, 377-379; and Darwin, Charles, 683; on the good, 600; on human nature,
681, 683; Human Nature and Conduct, 683; on Humanism, 691; on pragmatism,
1177-1178; on truth, 1512
DeWitt, John L., 783
Dharma, 96, 128, 154, 200, 282, 401, 636; and karma, 200
Diabetes, 143, 151, 721, 1321; and genetic engineering, 569
Diagnosis, 380, 915, 1220; and AIDS, 21; and birth defects, 153; and genetic
screening, 141; and genetic testing, 572, 574; and holistic medicine, 647; and illness, 714;
and mental illness, 743, 933, 935, 1217-1218, 1405, 1481; and pain, 1081
Dialectical materialism, 903
Dialectics; and Abelard, Peter, 1
Diamond v. Chakrabarty (1980), 571, 1461
"Dianetics," 1322
Dictatorship, 381-383; and corruption, 331; and social justice, 393; and tyranny, 1517
Diderot, Denis, 445
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), 1194
Dignity, 149, 383-384, 1098; and bioethics, 141; and drunkenness, 1341; and
equality, 465-466; and honor, 674; and human rights, 684-685; Kant, Immanuel, on, 195;
and moral autonomy, 110; and pride, 1182; and right to die, 484, 1282-1283, 1430-1431;
and rule of law, 322, 365; and sexual harassment, 1350; and technology, 1462
Dilemmas, moral, 384-386; and leadership, 833; and Milgram experiment, 946; and
punishment, 1223; and suicide assistance, 1430
Din-e-Ilahi, 42
Diogenes of Sinope, 345
DiOrio, Father, 510
Diphtheria, 1607
Direct Marketing Association, 80
Dirks v. Securities and Exchange Commission (1983), 741
Dirty hands, 386
"Dirty war," Argentina's, 389
Disability rights, 386-388; and United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons, 1529
Disappeared, The, 388-389
Disbarment, 106, 1113
Discrimination, 390-392; ageism, 37; and Americans with Disabilities Act, 54; and
business ethics, 183; gender bias, 564-565; and inequality, 733; and poll taxes, 1150;
and redlining, 1250; and reparations, 1261; in wages, 1567
Disease; and genetic engineering, 677; sexually transmitted, 1357-1358
Disney Company, 327
Distributive justice, 392-393; and biotechnology, 148; and business ethics, 182;
and corporate compensation, 327; and divorce, 397, 400; and fairness, 507; and health
care, 626; and lifeboat ethics, 858
Diversity, 394-395; and affirmative action, 29; and bilingual education, 129; and
communitarianism, 280; and Enlightenment, 446; and feminism, 527; and globalization, 592;
and Hinduism, 638; and homosexuality, 561; and multiculturalism, 981-982; and postmodernism, 1168;
and racial prejudice, 1230; and tolerance, 1494. See also Biodiversity
Divine command theory, 265, 368, 395-396, 413, 1248, 1254, 1435; and the good, 601;
and right and wrong, 1278-1279; Socrates on, 78
Divine law and Grotius, Hugo, 610
Divine right and deep ecology, 361
Divine right of kings, 443, 541; and Enlightenment, 444, 446, 1165; Hobbes,
Thomas, on, 844; Locke, John, on, 1516
Divine will, 48, 1496; Ibn Gabirol on, 705; and Islam, 588
Divorce, 397-401, 514; and child support, 224-225; and group therapy, 612;
"no-fault," 224-225, 399-400
Dix, Dorothea, 741
Dix, Dorothy, 28
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 138, 1461; discovery of, 570; double-helix structure,
568, 570; recombinant, 1459; and "secret of life," 1462; and stem cell research, 1416.
See also Human Genome Project
Doctrine of informed consent, 21, 111, 118, 139, 150, 222, 432, 474, 503, 1117, 1124,
1220, 1282, 1480; and abortion, 1285; and electroshock therapy, 431-432; and experimentation, 501-502,
1000; and genetic testing, 574; and medical ethics, 915; and mental illness, 931, 934-935;
and physician-patient relationship, 1125; and sterilization, 1419; and therapist-patient relationship, 1481
Doenitz, Karl, 1061
Dōgen, 402, 887
Dollard, John, 39, 582
"Dolly," 259
Domitian, 98, 544
Dong Zhongshu, 303-304
Dostoevski, Fyodor, 403, 497, 605, 852, 1041, 1326
Double effect, principle of, 1476, 1569-1570; and medical ethics, 915
Doubt, 490, 1086, 1199, 1500; and conscience, 310; and skepticism, 1374-1375,
1613; and truth, 1512
Douglas, Stephen A., 861
Douglas, William O., 162, 546, 610; on privacy, 1188
Douglass, Frederick, 1071, 1379; and abolition movement, 3
Down syndrome, 152, 356
Downsizing, 403-404
Draco, laws of, 321
Dred Scott case. See Scott v. Sandford
Dresden firebombing, 404-405
Dress codes, 405-407; Islamic, 775
Dreyfus, Alfred, 70, 1614
Dronenburg v. Zech, 407
Drug abuse, 407-409
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), 1004
Drug testing, 409-411
Drugs; and birth defects, 153; and gambling, 868; nicotine, 1491; and
psychopharmacology, 1219-1220; and rock and rock music, 1398
Drumont, Edouard, 70
Du Bois, W. E. B., 411-412, 1000, 1083; and Civil Rights movement, 252; and
Pan-Africanism, 1083; and Washington, Booker T., 1577
Ducommun, Élie, 1665
Due process, 130, 251, 412, 610; and abortion, 1294; in Argentina, 389;
Gault, In re, 561; Gideon v. Wainwright, 588-589; Goss v. Lopez (1975), 603;
and institutionalization of patients, 741, 935; and Japanese American internment, 783;
and juvenile defendants, 228; and Magna Carta, 888; and privacy, 1187; and punishment, 1224;
and Scottsboro case, 1325; and victims' rights, 1548
Dunant, Jean Henri, 578, 759; Nobel Peace Prize, 760, 1046, 1665
Duncan-Jones, Austin, 962
Dunster, Henry, 15
Durenberger, David, 307
Durkheim, Émile, 412-413; on education, 954; on socialism, 1391
Dutch Reformed Church, 76
Dutton, Donald, 13
Duty, 367-368, 413-414, 475, 1215, 1278, 1465, 1505; and accountability, 16; and
bribery, 168-169; Cicero on, 245; and citizenship, 246, 248; and dharma, 128, 200, 282,
636; and elitism, 433; and fairness, 508; and family, 511-513; Gandhi, Mohandas K., on, 558;
and generosity, 566-567; and gratitude, 604, 620; of the heart, 116; in Hinduism, 200,
282, 636; and Judaism, 789, 791, 871; Kant, Immanuel, on, 532, 551; and love, 870;
and morality, 551, 967, 976; and obedience, 1064; and permissive acts, 1111-1112; and
professional ethics, 1198-1202; and responsibility, 1389-1390; and social contract
theory, 1386; and suicide, 1342; and supererogation, 1434-1435
Dworkin, Andrea, 160, 1160-1161
Dworkin, Ronald, 941; on distributive justice, 393; on natural law, 621

E
Earth; and Gaia hypothesis, 558; and humanity, 415-416
Earth Day, 140, 417
Earth First!, 456
Earth Liberation Front, 456
Earth Summit, 137, 454
Earthwatch, 140
East Timor, 893
Eating competitions, 593
Eaubonne, Francois d', 417
Ebadi, Shirin, 1045, 1668
eBay, 571; and identity theft, 711
Ecclesiastes, 496, 629, 1517, 1602
Echelon, 429
Ecofeminism, 362, 417-418. See also Feminism
Ecology, 418; and conservation, 316; endangered species, 441-442; environmental
movement, 455-456; and greenhouse effect, 608; origin of term, 138; and rain forests, 1235;
sustainability of resources, 1443-1445. See also Deep ecology
Economic analysis, 419-420
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, 625
Economics, 420-422; and communitarianism, 280; cost-benefit analysis, 332; free
enterprise, 536; laissez-faire, 122, 493, 535, 658-659, 1584; and libertarianism, 848;
and liberty, 541; Marx, Karl, on, 903; and Marxism, 905; and profit economy, 1203;
and profit taking, 1203; and racism, 1232; Smith, Adam, on, 1383-1384; "zero-sum," 300, 1612
Edelstein, Ludwig, 640
Edict of Worms, 203
Education; and academic freedom, 14-15; and character, 209; college applications, 270;
and the Enlightenment, 444-446; and Head Start, 625; and loyalty oaths, 874; moral, 953-954;
and multiculturalism, 981-982; and plagiarism, 1126-1129; and political correctness, 1142-1143;
and segregation, 170-171; and sports, 1489
Education, Department of; and Title IX, 1488-1489
Educational Excellence for All Children Act of 1999, 129
Edwards, Jonathan, 122, 422-423, 680
Edwards, R. G., 722
EEOC. See Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Egalitarianism, 423-424, 466; and democracy, 365; and fraud, 535; and minimum-wage laws, 949
Egas Moniz, António, 864, 933
Egoism, 424-425; and altruism, 48; vs. egotism, 425; and electronic
surveillance, 429; and individualism, 730; Rand, Ayn, on, 1066; and right and wrong, 1279-1280;
and self-interest, 1335
Egotist, 425-426
Egypt; and Israel, 779; political disorders, 656; and Suez Crisis, 1103
Egypt, ancient, 282, 665; famines, 696; medical knowledge, 932; and Moses, 971-972;
religion, 31
Ehrlich, Paul, 457
Eichmann, Adolf, 1573
Einstein, Albert, 1317; and atom bomb, 895; theory of relativity, 1478
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 273, 672; and Commission on Civil Rights, U.S., 274; and
Dresden firebombing, 404; and McCarthy, Joseph R., 882
Eisenhower, Milton S., 784
Eisner, Michael, 327
Either/Or (Kierkegaard), 426-427, 812
Elections, 198, 319; campaign finance reform, 189-190; and communitarianism, 280;
and League of Women Voters, 836; and political liberty, 1144; and poll taxes, 1150;
South African, 76; and suffrage, 1426; and U.S. Constitution, 320; voting fraud, 1566
Electoral College, 320
Electric shock therapy, 119
Electronic mail, 427-428, 1461; and advertising, 27; and computer crime, 287, 289;
and identity theft, 710-711
Electronic surveillance, 293, 428-430; and Pentagon Papers case, 1107; and
Watergate scandal, 1578
Electroshock therapy, 430-432; and mental illness, 933
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1968, 129
Elephants, 690
Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity, 1674
Elitism, 432-433; and jury system, 799; and wisdom, 1594
Ellender, Allan J., 881
Elliot, George, 162
Elliotson, John, 700
Ellis, Havelock, 995
Ellsberg, Daniel, 1106-1107
Ellul, Jacques, 1458
Elton, Charles, 138
Ely, Richard T., 15
E-mail. See Electronic mail
Emanation doctrine, 1085
Emancipation Proclamation, 2, 252, 434-435, 862
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 357, 436; on conservation, 316; on idealism, 707; and
Thoreau, Henry David, 1484; and transcendentalism, 1505-1506
Emerson, Thomas, 546
Eminem, 1399-1400
Emotion, 1093-1096; and irrationality, 1093-1096; and reason, 1247; and reason, 284, 437, 1093
Emotional abuse, 13
Emotions; anger, 57-58; compassion, 283-284; and forgiveness, 530; guilt, 612-613;
jealousy, 785-786; pain, 1081; and self-control, 1331-1332; shame, 612-613; and tragedy, 1503
Emotivism, 114, 265, 436-438, 506, 619, 824, 1112, 1248, 1424; and fact/value
distinction, 506; and the good, 600; Moore, G. E., on, 953; and naturalism, 1049;
and skepticism, 1375
Empedocles, 622
Empiricism; Locke, John, on, 865-866
Employee safety and treatment, 438-440
Employment; and AIDS, 20; discrimination; and gay rights, 562; resumés, 1268
Endangered species, 63, 415, 441-443, 454; and biodiversity, 137; World Society
for the Protection of Animals, 1607
Energy, U.S. Department of; Human Genome Project, 677-678
Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, 1059
Energy Research and Development Administration, 105, 1059
Engelberger, Joseph, 1289
Engels, Friedrich; on class struggle, 255-256; Communist Manifesto, The, 203,
277-278, 903, 906; on socialism, 1391-1392
England, Poor Laws, 891
English Bill of Rights, 384, 443
Enlightenment, 444-447, 1162-1166; and abolition, 1; and absolutism, 10; and Buddha, 174;
and anti-Semitism, 70; and children, 227; and communitarianism, 280; and honor, 674;
and idealism, 707; and Kant, Immanuel, 804-807; and Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 838;
and Locke, John, 865-866; and Montesquieu, 952; and moral-sense theories, 964; and
nationalism, 1006; and natural rights doctrine, 1021-1023; and religion, 1163; and slavery, 1378
Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, An (Hume), 447-449, 693, 1049
Enron scandal, 183, 186, 329-330, 472, 741; and ethical codes, 471; and Lay, Kenneth, 1421
Entitlements, 450, 868, 1286, 1288, 1389, 1545; and health care, 626
Environmental Defense Fund, 456
Environmental movement, 455-456; and civil disobedience, 609; Earth Day, 417; and
future generations, 554; Green parties, 607; Greenpeace, 609; and Muir, John, 980;
and Nature Conservancy Council, 1027; and Population Connection, 1155; Sierra Club, 1363;
and Silent Spring (Carson), 1367
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1, 140, 455, 457-458, 1674; and Love
Canal, 1502; and tobacco industry, 1490, 1492
Environmental racism, 1052
Environmentalism, 140, 450-454, 455-457, 1459; and bioethics, 138; and business
ethics, 185; Clean Air Act, 256; and conservation, 316; and cost-benefit analysis, 332;
and ecofeminism, 418; and Gaia hypothesis, 558; and incommensurability, 729;
"not in my backyard," 1051-1052; and nuclear energy, 1057-1058; and Nuclear Regulatory
Commission, 1059; and pollution, 1151-1152; and realpolitik, 1246; sustainability of
resources, 1443-1445; and taxes, 1455; and technology, 1456, 1458, 1460; and toxic
waste, 1502; and Wilderness Act of 1964, 1589
Envy, 458-459, 477; and cruelty, 341. See also Jealousy
EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency
Epictetus, 459-460; and Butler, Joseph, 49
Epicureanism and Cyrenaics, 348
Epicurus, 101, 460, 487, 599; on hedonism, 631
Epilepsy, 151
Epistemology, 369, 433, 460-462, 825; and Descartes, René, 371; and
existentialism, 498; and ideal observer, 706; and intuitionism, 825; and Kant, Immanuel, 804;
and Locke, John, 865; and metaethics, 943-944; and Plato, 474, 1130; and subjectivism, 1424
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 387, 1567
Equal pay for equal work, 462, 466, 507, 816, 1023, 1356
Equal protection of the law, 462, 464, 686, 798; and affirmative action, 30; and
civil rights, 254; Dronenburg v. Zech, 407; and education, 170; and egalitarianism, 423;
and fairness, 507; and gay rights, 561, 662; and voting rights, 1566
Equal Rights Amendment, 462-464, 468
Equal Rights for Fathers, 225
Equality, 464-468; and distributive justice, 392-393; and Rawls, John, 1480; and
socialism, 316; and Supreme Court, U.S., 1437
Erasistratus, 922
ERDA. See Energy Research and Development Administration
Eros, 211, 814, 869-870
Eros (god), 371
Erroneous convictions, 469; and capital punishment, 195
Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio, 1092
Esdaile, James, 700
Eshnunna, Laws of, 617
Eskimos, 1347; and divorce, 397; and polygamy, 670; and wife lending, 22
Espionage, 470-471; and computer crime, 289
Esquivel, Adolfo Pérez, 1667
Estournelles de Constant, Paul d', 1665
Ethic cleansing, 295
Ethical codes of organizations, 80, 471-473
Ethical Culture movement, 283, 691
Ethical humanism and atheism, 102
Ethical monotheism, 473
Ethical Principles of Psychologists, 473-474
Ethical realism and Nagel, Thomas, 992
Ethical relativism, 600, 646, 713, 1252-1253, 1401; and bribery, 984; and child
labor, 984; and multinational corporations, 983-984; and naturalism, 1049. See also
Cultural relativism; Relativism
Ethical theory, 474-475; absolutism, 10; and animal consciousness, 60; applied
ethics, 79-80; Aristotelian ethics, 83; and choice, 239; cognitivism, 264-265;
communitarianism, 279-280; comparative ethics, 281-282; and compassion, 284; Confucianism, 303;
consequentialism, 315; and consistency, 318; critical theory, 338-339; and custom, 344;
Cynicism, 345-346; deconstruction, 358-359; deontology, 367-368; Derrida, Jacques, 369;
emotivism, 436-437; epistemology, 460-461; ethics/morality distinction, 479; existentialism, 496-500;
Gewirth, Alan, 586; idealism, 707-708; ideology, 712; and inequality, 733; intuitionism, 766-767;
just war theory, 800; Kantian, 806-807; Levinas, Emmanuel, 845; maximal vs. minimal ethics, 906-907;
metaethics, 943-944; moral realism, 961; morality, 967-970; moral-sense theories, 964;
Nagel, Thomas, 992; narrative ethics, 995; nihilism, 1040-1041; normative vs. descriptive ethics, 1048-1049;
Nozick, Robert, 1053; objectivism, 1065-1066; paradoxes, 1086-1088; perfectionism, 1109;
Perry, R. B., 1112; Platonic, 1132-1135; pluralism, 1137; post-Enlightenment, 1162-1166;
postmodernism, 1167-1168; pragmatism, 1177-1178; prescriptivism, 1181; progressivism, 1204;
relativism, 1252-1253; Rorty, Richard, 1298; Schopenhauer, Arthur, 1316; secularism, 1326-1327;
situational, 1372-1373; skepticism, 1374-1375; social contract, 1385-1386; Social
Darwinism, 1387-1388; sophistry, 1401; Stoicism, 1421-1422; subjectivism, 1424-1425;
teleology, 1465-1466; theory and practice, 1478; transcendentalism, 1504-1505; universalizability, 1530;
utilitarianism, 1531-1532; values clarification, 1539-1540; virtue ethics, 1563
Ethical theory, Hartshorne, Charles, 621
Ethicist, The (Cohen), 266
Ethics, 474-475; comparative, 281-282; vs. etiquette, 482; vs. law, 827; vs.
morality, 479; normative, 474
Ethics (Spinoza), 476-477, 622, 1112, 1408
Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1674
Ethics in Government Act, 477-479
Ethics Resource Center, 1674
Ethiopia, 1308; and Eritrea, 697; Falasha Jews, 36; Italian invasion, 135, 215, 835
Ethnic cleansing, 479-480, 752, 822, 1251, 1259, 1513; in Bosnia, 163, 687; and
concentration camps, 296; in Kosovo, 818; and pogroms, 1138
Ethnocentrism, 480, 982, 1012, 1164, 1388; and anthropology, 68; and racial prejudice, 1228
Ethology and animal consciousness, 59
Etiquette, 480-482; and Internet chat rooms, 760
Eudaimonia, 83, 85, 599
Eudemian Ethics (Aristotle), 83
Eugenia IV, Pope, 1231
Eugenics, 482-483, 556, 1028; and genetic counseling, 568; and genetic testing, 574;
and intelligence testing, 750; Plato on, 1114; and right to die, 1283; and Social
Darwinism, 1388; and sterilization, 1418
Euphemism. See Political correctness
European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 204-205, 686
European Court of Justice, 754
European Union and migration, 715
Euthanasia, 153, 243, 283, 355-356, 437, 483-485, 660, 856-857, 916-917, 1028-1029,
1032, 1432; and Hippocratic oath, 639; and infanticide, 734-735; and Kevorkian,
Jack, 810; and Nazis, 735; in Netherlands, 1201; passive, 355, 943, 1283, 1430;
and Quinlan, Karen Ann, 1225; and relativism, 1252; and right to die, 1282-1283;
and Roman Catholic Church, 1283; and Singer, Peter, 1372; and "slippery-slope"
arguments, 1382;
and suicide, 1429-1431; and taboos, 1448
Evangelicalism; and Fundamentalism, 1468; and televangelists, 1467-1468
Evers, Medgar, 485-486
"Everyone does it," 486-487
Evil, 58, 227, 229, 445, 448, 487-490, 680, 969-970, 1038, 1085, 1327, 1334, 1338, 1587;
Abelard, Peter, on, 1; Augustine on, 108; and Daoism, 604; and dishonesty, 669; and
divine command theory, 395-396; and existentialism, 498-500; and freedom, 542; and Hitler,
Adolf, 643; and the Holocaust, 647, 651; and holy war, 653-654; and human will, 475;
and karma, 808; and loyalty, 873; and mean/ends distinction, 909; Nietzsche, Friedrich, on, 126-127;
and panentheism, 1085; Plato on, 1133-1135; and power, 382; and Shintoism, 1362;
Thomas Aquinas on, 1482-1483; and torture, 1498; and virtue, 1559, 1561; Xunzi on, 303;
and Zoroastrianism, 1615-1617
Evolutionary theory, 394, 491-493, 1025, 1318, 1553; and Darwin, Charles, 354; and
human nature, 681; and Nazi science, 1028; and panentheism, 1085; and sociobiology,
1393; and vice, 1547
Ewing, Gary, 1486
Excellence, 494-495
Execution; and capital punishment, 340, 810, 1223; lethal injection, 194
Executive Order 9066, 783
Executive Order 10988, 496
Existence and Buddha, 174
Existentialism, 496-500; and atheism, 102; and Beauvoir, Simone de, 116-117; and
Berdyayev, Nikolay, 124, 498-499; and Camus, Albert, 191; and choice, 853; and Christianity, 1370;
on death, 499; and epistemology, 498; and freedom, 497, 500; and hedonism, 498; vs.
Hinduism, 499; and humanism, 498; and irrationality, 496, 498; and Kierkegaard,
Sřren, 497-498, 811-812; and knowledge, 498; and logic, 497; and meaning of life, 850, 852;
and Nietzsche, Friedrich, 497, 499; and pleasure, 498; and reason, 496, 498; and
responsibility, 1267; and Sartre, Jean-Paul, 497-498, 1313-1314; and suffering, 498-499
Experimentation, 501-502; in Nazi Germany, 1027-1029
Exploitation, 502-504
Extinctions, 137, 140, 416, 1025-1026; and endangered species, 441-442; in human
evolution, 415; and pollution, 1151-1152; of trees, 503
Extortion and bribery, 169
Eysenck, Hans, 118
Ezekiel, 361

F
Facing History and Ourselves, 1674
Fact/value distinction, 505-506
FAIR. See Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting
Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1969, 737
Fair Housing Act of 1968, 20, 745
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, 506-507, 949
Fairness, 507-509; and business ethics, 182; and cost-benefit analysis, 333; and
discrimination, 390-391; equal pay for equal work, 462; and free-riding, 538; and
justice, 507-508; and taxes, 1453-1455; and war, 1569; in the workplace, 440
Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR), 18, 509, 1675
Faisal II, 770
Faith; and God, 593-594; Luther, Martin, on, 876; and reason, 1519
Faith healers, 509-511
Falkland Islands War, 861
Fall, the. See Adam and Eve
Families, 511-515; and adultery, 22; child abuse, 217; and gangs, 560; and
incest, 723-724; and marriage, 900-901; parenting, 1089; and personal relationships, 1114;
and trustworthiness, 1510; and welfare, 512-513
Family Life Education for Peace, 1102
Family planning, 150, 1155, 1157, 1419. See also Birth control
Family therapy, 515-516
Family values, 517-518
Famine, 41, 150, 377, 519-520, 555, 696, 1411, 1543-1544; and hunger, 695-697; in Ukraine, 585
Fanon, Frantz, 1609
Fārābī, al-, 520-521; and Ghazālī, al-, 587
Fard, Wallace D., 996
Farm Animal Reform Movement (FARM), 63
Farmer, James, 308
Farrakhan, Louis, 521, 996, 998, 1275; and Jackson, Jesse, 780
Farson, Richard, 1089
Fascism, 295, 522-523, 1148; and anti-Semitism, 70; and concentration camps, 295-296;
and dictatorship, 542; Japanese, 180; and loyalty, 872; and Nazism, 1030-1032, 1147;
and patriotism, 522
Fasting; and asceticism, 95; and Islam, 95, 116, 282, 773, 1560; in Manichaeanism, 896
Fatalism, 523, 1166; and Islam, 979; Mozi on, 978
Fātima, 523
Faubus, Orval, 253
Fawkes, Guy, 1507
Fay v. New York (1947), 1599
FBI. See Federal Bureau of Investigation
FCC. See Federal Communications Commission. See Federal Trade Commission
FDA. See Food and Drug Administration
Feagin, Joe, 78
Fear, 1094; and animal consciousness, 60
Fear in the workplace, 523-525; and genetic testing, 573
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI); and censorship, 1397; and the Cold War, 269;
fingerprint files, 145; and Ku Klux Klan, 819; and lynching, 880; National Crime
Information Center, 737; and Peltier, Leonard, 1105; on rape, 1237; undercover operations, 792
Federal Communications Commission (FCC); and censorship, 1397; and educational
television, 235; and media ownership, 780, 911; and V-chips, 234
Federal Corrupt Practices Act of 1910, 190
Federal Drug Administration (FDA); and ImClone, 1420
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, 190
Federal Election Commission, 190
Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946, 862
Federal Reserve System, 81
Federal Trade Commission (FTC); and advertising, 27; and identity theft, 711;
National Do Not Call Registry, 1465; and telemarketing, 1465
Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions, 52
Feminine Mystique, The (Friedan), 525-526, 1599
Feminism, 526-527; and Beauvoir, Simone de, 116-117; and marriage, 1115; Marxist, 1597;
and men's movement, 929-930; and pornography, 1158, 1160; and pro-choice movement, 1190;
and rape, 1240, 1242; and trustworthiness, 1510; and women's movement, 1596-1597.
See also Ecofeminism
Ferkiss, Victor, 1458
Ferraro, Geraldine, 1600
Feudalism, 1165-1166, 1584; in China, 304, 1613; and chivalry, 237; and democracy,
365-366; in Japan, 180; and Magna Carta, 887; Marx, Karl, on, 903, 905
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 1019, 1425
Fifth Amendment, 784, 1437; and due process, 412
Film rating systems, 973-974
Fingerprints, 145; in fiction, 146
Finley, Karen, 90
Finley v. National Endowment for the Arts (1998), 91
Finney, Charles Grandison, 2
Finnis, John, 1019
Firearms industry, 184
Fire-related deaths, 1492
First Amendment, 130, 158, 162, 204, 251, 528-529, 545; church-state separation,
243-244; and libel, 845; and lobbying, 862; and loyalty oaths, 873; and pornography, 1158-1159;
and rights of the accused, 18; and Sedition Act of 1798, 1328; and song lyrics, 1400; and spam, 428
Fitzhugh, George, 1378
Five Pillars of Islam, 95, 282, 773-774, 1226, 1560
Five precepts of Buddhism, 42, 175-176, 529
Fleck, John, 90
Fletcher, Joseph, 138, 915; on situational ethics, 1372-1373
Flett, Gordon, 1109
Flint, Austin, Sr., 914
Flory, Wendy Stallard, 71
Food and Drug Act of 1906, 732
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 927; and experimentation, 923; and
genetically modified foods, 575
Foote, Philippa, 772
Ford, Gerald, 1308; and stem cell research, 1415
Foreign aid, 755, 836, 1172, 1583; and income distribution, 728; and Marshall Plan, 902
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, 169, 186
Forests. See also Deforestation
Forgiveness, 529-530; and asceticism, 95; and reconciliation, 1249; vs. revenge, 1273
"Forty acres and a mule," 1260
Fossey, Dian, 352
Foucault, Michel, 110, 339, 359, 531-532, 1356; and genealogy, 531; on power, 1172,
1174-1176; on wisdom, 1594
Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant), 532
Four-humors theory, 923
Four noble truths, 532-534
Fourier, Charles, 1391
Fourteen Points, 833, 1508, 1521
Fourteenth Amendment, 1380; and Bill of Rights, 132
Fourth Amendment, 251; and electronic surveillance, 429
Fox, Michael A., 62, 66
Fox, Michael J., 1415
Foxwoods Resort Casino, 1009-1010
France; Dreyfus affair, 70; and Suez Crisis, 1103
Francis Ferdinand, 100
Franco, Francisco, 56
Franco-Prussian War, 645
Frank, André Gundar, 272, 376
Frank, Hans, 1061
Frankel, Charles, 1189
Frankena, William K., 1215, 1339
Frankfurt School, 339, 447, 1175
Frankl, Victor, 499
Franklin, Benjamin, 741; on adultery, 399; on loyalty oaths, 873
Fraud, 534-535; and advertising, 535; and computer crime, 287, 289; corporate, 328-330;
and plagiarism, 1126-1127, 1129; and science, 1319; and telemarketing, 1464
Free enterprise, 536-537
Free market; advertising, 24-27; and antitrust legislation, 73; and capitalism, 197-198;
and infomercials, 736; and profit economy, 1203
Free Religion, 691
Free-riding, 509, 537-538, 1087
Free speech; and academic freedom, 14-15; and campaign finance reform, 190; and church-state
separation, 244; and democracy, 204; and hate speech, 624; and loyalty oaths, 873;
and political correctness, 1143
Free will, 539; and determinism, 373; and sexuality, 1354; and Zoroastrianism, 1615, 1617
Freedom, 121, 539-542; and choice, 239; and existentialism, 497, 500; and human rights, 586;
and On Liberty (Mill), 1067-1068; and political liberty, 1144; and Rawls,
John, 1480; and responsibility, 1264
Freedom of expression, 543-547
Freedom of Information Act of 1967, 548-549, 1222
Freedom rides, 250, 253-254, 308
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, 231, 365, 1022, 1277
French Revolution, 1276; and antislavery movement, 1378; and Burke, Edmund, 179;
and class struggle, 255; and communism, 276; and egalitarianism, 423; and equality, 466;
and Jews, 70; and nationalism, 1006; and total war, 1521
Freud, Sigmund, 549-551, 1405; on aggression, 39, 1553; on alienation, 44-45; on
cocaine, 1220; on "death instinct," 1553, 1588; on gangs, 560; on homosexuality, 666;
on human nature, 300, 680; on hypnosis, 700; and Jung, Carl, 796; on life's purpose, 976;
on madness, 110; on narcissism, 995; on rape, 1239; on sexual stereotypes, 1352
Frey, Raymond G., 66, 1544
Frick, Wilhelm, 1061
Fried, Alfred, 1665
Friedan, Betty, 680, 1601; Feminine Mystique, The, 525, 1599
Friedman, Milton, 328, 848, 1454
Friends Service Council, 1666
Friendship, 48, 274, 552-553, 1113-1117; and gossip, 603; and self-love, 1337
Frisch, Karl von, 59
Frist, Bill, 563
Fritzsche, Hans, 1061
Frohnmayer, John, 89
Fromm, Erich, 606
Fruit of Islam, 996
Frustration-aggression theory, 39
FTC. See Federal Trade Commission
Fuchs, Klaus Emil J., 1507
Fullinwider, Robert K., 940
Fund for Animals, 63
Fundamentalism; Christian, 1468; and faith healers, 510; lifestyles, 860; and violence, 1259
Fund-raising and televangelists, 1468
Funk, Walter, 1061
Furman v. Georgia (1972), 194
Future generations, 553-557; and global warming, 590

G
Gabor, Thomas, 486
Gabriel, angel, 773, 1226
Gaddis, John Lewis, 267
Gaia hypothesis, 503, 558; and environmental movement, 456
Gaines v. Missouri (1938), 1330
Galambos, Robert, 59
Galen, 923, 932
Galileo Galilei, 203, 1318, 1408, 1478
Galla people, 33
Gallo, Robert, 1320
Galton, Francis, 482
Gambling; Bennett, William, 123; Native American casinos, 1009-1011; and Roman
Catholic Church, 867; sweepstakes, 25. See also Lotteries
Games and cheating, 212
Gandhi, Indira, 100
Gandhi, Mohandas K., 96, 249, 342, 349, 558-559, 636, 781-782, 814-815, 1154-1155;
and civil disobedience, 248; and Hinduism, 638; on hunger, 696; and King, Martin
Luther, Jr., 250, 814; and nonviolence, 42, 1047; and Orwell, George, 1074; pacifism
of, 1079; and Poona Pact, 1154; satyagraha, 1554; and untouchables, 1154
Ganges River, 637
Gangs, 559-560; and drug abuse, 409
Gangsta rap, 1400
García Robles, Alfonso, 1667
Garden of Eden, 680, 970, 1114, 1369, 1602
Gardner, John, 191
Garrison, William Lloyd, 2-3, 1379
Garrison v. Louisiana (1964), 546
Garry, Joan, 1400
Garvey, Marcus, 996, 1083
Gathas, 1615
GATT. See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Gault, In re, 561
Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Discrimination (GLAAD), 1400
Gay rights, 561-564, 1356; and the arts, 89; and Civil Rights movement, 254; and
Dronenburg v. Zech, 407; and homophobia, 661-663; and homosexuality, 664-668;
and men's movement, 931; and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 1001; Stonewall Inn riots, 1423
Gearhart, John, 1415
Gender issues, 274; and aggressive behavior, 40; and benevolence, 122 bias, 564-566;
and ecofeminism, 417; feminism, 526-527; and hate-crime laws, 624; and multiculturalism, 394;
and rape, 1242; sexism, 1347; and sexual stereotypes, 1351-1352
Gene prospecting, 1461
Genealogy, 531
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 590, 1607
General Electric Ion Track, 216
General Motors advertising, 27
Generosity, 566-567; and asceticism, 95
Genetic counseling, 567-568; and genetic testing, 574
Genetic engineering, 141, 147, 568-572, 922, 924, 926, 1462; and biochemical weapons,
134, 136; and biodiversity, 137; cloning, 259-260; and DNA, 926; ethical dilemmas, 1461;
and food, 575-577
Genetic profiling, 147
Genetic screening, 572-573
Genetic testing, 141, 151, 572-575, 723; and eugenics, 482; and genetic counseling, 568
Genetically modified foods, 148, 575-577
Genetics and race, 394
Geneva Conventions, 224, 578-580, 610, 757, 800; and International Criminal Court, 752;
and Red Cross, 759-760; and war crimes, 1573
Geneva Protocol of 1925, 132, 135, 214
Genocide, 583-586; of Armenians, 583, 585, 839; cultural, 580-581; defined, 583,
frustration-aggression theory of, 581-582; and International Criminal Court, 752;
and Lemkin, Raphael, 839; of Native Americans, 1013-1015; Rwanda, 351, 583, 1103,
1302-1304, 1573; United Nations Convention on, 1527; and war crime trials, 1573. See also Holocaust
Genovese, Kitty, 188
Germany; and the Cold War, 267; and frustration-aggression theory of genocide, 582;
reparations to Jews, 1260.
See also Nazi Germany
Gerontology, 37-38
Gewirth, Alan, 587
Ghazālī, al-, 587-588, 1428; and Averroës, 112
G.I. Bill, 1545
Gibbon, Edward, 730
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), 588-589
Gilgamesh Epic, 1367
Gilligan, Carol, 122, 526, 680, 816, 1115, 1352; on moral reasoning, 284; on
women's morality, 526
Gingrich, Newt, 90
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 1600
Gisborne, Thomas, 912
Gitlow v. United States (1925), 130, 546
Gittings, Barbara, 666
Giuliani, Rudolph, 91
Giving; and charity, 210-211; and generosity, 566
GLAAD. See Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Discrimination
Glazer, Nathan, 744
Glen Canyon Dam, 1364
Global Crossing, 329
Global Day of Action, 591
Global Trade Watch, 1608
Global warming, 140, 589-590, 608, 1025-1026; and automobiles, 1151; and greenhouse
effect, 608; and nuclear energy, 1059
Globalization, 590-592; and business ethics, 186; multinational corporations, 983-984;
and outsourcing, 1078; and postmodernism, 1167
Glorious Revolution, 179, 444, 1275
Gluttony, 458, 592-593; and greed, 606
Gnosticism, 803, 895
Gobat, Charles Albert, 1665
Gobind Singh, 993, 1365
Gobineau, Joseph-Arthur de, 1030
God, 593-595; and anthropomorphism, 69; and divine command theory, 395-396; and
evil, 487-490; existence of, 719; and holy war, 653-656; and immortality, 718-719;
and Judaism, 789-791; nature of, 621, 1084-1086; and panentheism, 1084-1085; and
pantheism, 1086; and "playing god," 1136; proofs of existence, 621; and revelation, 1271-1272;
and secularism, 1326-1327; sovereignty of, 189
"God is dead" (Nietzsche), 102, 489, 497, 1039-1040, 1326; movement, 1487
Godparents, 595
Godwin, William, 891
Goethe, Wolfgang von, 940, 1174, 1318
Goldberg v. Kelly (1970), 449
Golden mean, 596-597
Golden rule, 597-598, 788, 1559; and consistency, 318; and Freud, Sigmund, 551; and
Jesus Christ, 720; and Muhammad, 1560
Golding, William, 160, 558
Goldman, Alvin I., 1077
Goldman, Emma, 56
Gompers, Samuel, 52, 538
Good, the, 598-601; and ideal observer, 706; Locke, John, on, 866; and Platonic
ethics, 1134. See also Common good
Good life, Aristotle on, 83
Good samaritan laws, 602
Goodman, Paul, 57
Goodwin, Doris Kearns, 1126
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 1667
Gore, Al, 991
Gore, Tipper, 1398
Gorgias, 1252
Göring, Hermann, 1031, 1060
Gospel Music Association, 994
Goss v. Lopez (1975), 603
Gossip, 177, 213, 297-298, 603
Government; and the arts, 88-91; and consent, 315; and lobbying, 862; and
science, 1458; theories of, 1480
Government officials and conflicts of interest, 477-478
Graham, Billy, 1467
Graham, Katharine, 160
Gramsci, Antonio, 712
"Grandfather" clauses, 391
Grant, Ulysses S., 1521
Gratitude, 604-605
Gray, Elizabeth Dodson, 417
Gray Panthers, 38, 605-606, 1675
Great Books Program, 1298
Great Britain and the Suez Crisis, 1103
Great Depression, 1457
Great Society programs, 467-468
Greatest good principle, 10, 599, 958; and Bentham, Jeremy, 124; and capitalism, 197;
and distributive justice, 392; Epicurus on, 460; and hedonism, 630; and infanticide, 735;
and mean/ends distinction, 908; and morality, 965; Nozick, Robert, on, 1054; and promises, 1209;
and right and wrong, 1280-1281; and self-interest, 1335; Spinoza, Baruch, on, 476;
and virtue, 1562. See also Utilitarianism
Greece, ancient, 282; adultery in, 22; constitutional government of, 321;
democracy, 365, 539; dictatorships, 381, 1517; egalitarianism in, 423; and the Enlightenment, 444;
homosexuality in, 665; and international law, 756; justice in, 1021; markets in, 1181;
military ethics, 946; scorched-earth tactics, 1324; sexual stereotypes in, 1351;
slavery, 1376; Sophists, 1401; and Stoicism, 1421-1422; tragedies, 1503; and work, 1602
Greece, modern, and the Truman Doctrine, 1509
Greed, 278, 330, 606-607, 984, 1584; and capitalism, 274; and gluttony, 606
Green parties, 607
Green Party, 456; and Nader, Ralph, 991
Green Revolution, 41
Greenberg, Irving, 490
Greenhouse effect, 140, 608-609; and global warming, 590; illustrated, 608
Greenpeace, 140, 576, 609, 1675; revenues, 456
Greer, Germaine, 1599
Gregg v. Georgia (1976), 194
Gregory VII, Pope, 654
Gregory, John, 138, 912, 914
Griffin, Donald R., 59
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), 609-610, 1187
Grote, John; on altruism, 47
Grotius, Hugo, 610, 878, 1019; on just war, 800; on lying, 878; on natural law, 1022;
and Nussbaum, Martha, 1062
Group therapy, 611
Groves, Leslie R., 895
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), 30
Guarantees, 25, 1574-1575; and Hammurabi's code, 618
Guilt, 612-614; and Shintoism, 1362
Gulag Archipelago (Solzhenitsyn), 614-615
Gulags, 295-296, 1397, 1498
Guthrie, Woody, 1397
Gutierrez, Gustavo, 1555
Gypsies, 295, 382, 522, 583-584, 647, 1032, 1250, 1388

H
Habermas, Jürgen, 339, 713, 764, 806-808
Habyarimana, Juvenal, 1303
Hackers. See Computer hackers
Hadīth, 178, 587, 773, 1226, 1360;, 588, 616; of Būkhārī, al-, 178
Haeckel, Ernst, 138
Haessly, Jacqueline, 1101
Hague Conventions and war crimes, 1573
Hahn, Otto, 1057
Haiman, Franklyn, 547
Haiti and United Nations, 1526
Halbritter, Ray, 1011
Hales, Stephen, 964
Hallāj, al-, 616-617
Hallie, Philip, 341
Hamas, 656, 779
Hamilton, Alexander, 1404, 1439
Hamilton, W. D., 1394
Hamm, Mia, 1489
Hammad ibn Abī Sulayman, 12
Hammarskjöld, Dag, 1103, 1666
Hammurabi's code, 235, 617-618, 660, 665, 972; and adultery, 22; and capital
punishment, 193; and constitutional government, 321; on criminal punishment, 336;
and Hebrew Bible, 628
Han Dynasty, 303, 305, 826, 1568
Han Wudi, 303
Hand, Learned, 1456
Hanks, Nancy, 89
Happiness; Aristotle on, 83, 85; Augustine, Saint, on, 108; Cynics on, 346; and
Stoicism, 1421; Thomas Aquinas on, 1432, 1482; and work, 1603
Hardin, Garrett, 457, 858
Hardin, Russell, 1087, 1186
Hare, R. M., 619; on ought/can implication, 1076; and prescriptivism, 1181
Harlan, John M., 1136, 1329
Harlan, John M., III, 1107
Harm, 619-620; and computer databases, 290-291; and maximal vs. minimal ethics, 907;
and self-preservation, 1339-1340; and violence, 1553-1556
Harris, Joseph, 1230
Harris, William T., 707
Hart, H. L. A., 620-621; on law, 828; and negligence, 1034
Hartshorne, Charles, 621-622
Hartshorne, Hugh, 209
Harvard University, 15
Harvey, William, 964
Hasidism, 622
Hastings Center, 1459, 1675
Hatch, John P., 143
Hatch, Orrin, 261
Hate, 622-623
Hate crime, 624; and the homeless, 659; lynching, 879-881; statistics, 1001
Hate speech, 624
Hayek, F. A., 730, 848, 1149
Haynes, Todd, 89
Hays Code, 973
Hays, Will, 973
Head Start, 625
Healing, 211, 914, 933, 1125; Avicenna, 113; and faith healers, 509-510; and
Hippocratic oath, 639; holistic, 647; Jesus Christ, 242
Health and children's television, 236
Health and Human Services, Department of, 501, 920; and experimentation, 923;
and medical experimentation, 924
Health care; allocation, 625-627; biofeedback, 142-143; Children's Bureau, 230; and
cost-benefit analysis, 332; diagnosis, 380; electroshock therapy, 430-431; employee
safety, 438-440; and faith healers, 509-510; and genetic information, 573; and holistic
medicine, 647; and homosexuality, 666; and illness, 713-714; and medical bills of
rights, 912-913; and medical ethics, 914-918; and medical insurance, 919-921; and mental
illness, 931-935; and older people, 38; and prostitutes, 1212; and psychopharmacology, 1219-1220;
and tobacco industry, 1490; and triage, 1509; and World Health Organization, 1606
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, 573, 921
HealthSouth, 329
Hearst, William Randolph, 795, 910-911
Heart disease, 488; and genetic engineering, 569; and smoking, 1490, 1492, 1494
Heaven, 465, 488, 719, 968; Buddhist concepts of, 821; Christian concepts of, 987,
1042, 1226, 1272, 1338; Confucian concepts of, 303, 928-929, 978, 1610; Hindu concepts
of, 808; Islamic concepts of, 1226; Jewish concepts of, 1497; Thomist concepts of, 970;
Zoroastrian concepts of, 489; Zulu concepts of, 32
Hebrew Bible, 628-630, 647, 939, 1368-1369, 1472-1473; on justice, 801; on mercy, 938-939;
on sin, 1367-1369; Talmud, 789, 943, 1449-1452; Ten Commandments, 101, 282, 368, 517,
529, 534, 629, 875, 877, 958, 972, 1048, 1373, 1472-1473; Torah, 1496-1497; on tzaddik, 1517;
on work, 1602
Hebrew language, 1368
Hecataeus, 101
Hedonism, 630-631; and Cyrenaics, 347-348; and existentialism, 498; and human nature, 681;
and naturalism, 1049; and paradoxes, 631; and rationality, 599, 630, 970, 1248
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 44, 497, 632-633; on alienation, 44; and
Bradley, F. H., 166; on collectivism, 1147; on history, 712; on idealism, 707; on Kantian
idealism, 708; on morality, 708; Phenomenology of Spirit, 44, 708, 1120-1121;
on politics, 1008; on tragedy, 1503; and transcendentalism, 707; on truth, 1511, 1513;
on universalism, 1252; on work, 1602-1604
Hegesias, 347
Heidegger, Martin, 497, 634, 1519; and Arendt, Hannah, 82; and existentialism, 498;
and Levinas, Emmanuel, 845; on personal relationships, 1116
Heisenberg, Werner, 104
Hell, 488, 672, 719, 968, 1226, 1228, 1615-1616; Christian concepts of, 1272
Hellman, Lillian, 667
Helms, Jesse, 89, 207
Helms Amendment, 89
Héloďse, 1
Helsinki Accords, 689
Helsinki Watch, 689
Hemophilia, 568
Henderson, Arthur, 1666
Henry VIII, 398
HerbaLife, 736
Herbart, Johann Friedrich, 122
Herbert of Cherbury, Lord, 364
Hermogenes Tarsus, 544
Herodotus, 101, 1323
Heroin, 153, 1082, 1472
Heroism, 634-635, 995, 1339, 1435, 1614; components of, 635; and love, 869
Herophilus, 922
Herpes, 1357
Herrera v. Collins (1993), 469
Herzl, Theodor, 1614-1615
Hesiod, 1603
Hess, Rudolf, 1060, 1061
Hewitt, Paul, 1109
Hicklin test, 206, 1159
Hillman, James, 930
Himmler, Heinrich, 1031
Himstead, Ralph, 15
Hinduism, 282, 636-638; and adultery, 22; Ahimsā, 42; and asceticism, 95;
Bhagavadgītā, 127; caste system, 128, 199-200, 637, 781, 808, 993, 1154,
1364, 1541; vs. existentialism, 499; and gratitude, 604; and Islam, 792; and karma, 808-809;
and mysticism, 987; and nirvana, 1042; origins, 200; and Sankara, 1311; and Sikhism, 1364;
and suicide, 1429; and Upanisads, 1530; Weber, Max, on, 1581
Hipparchia, 345
Hipparchus, assassination of, 97
Hippies, 1350
Hippocrates, 138, 638-640, 914, 922, 932; on confidentiality, 297
Hippocratic oath, 81, 138, 471, 912, 914, 923; and assisted suicide, 1431; and
Hippocrates, 639; and professional ethics, 1201
Hiring practices, 640-641; and arrest records, 86; and biometrics, 146; and downsizing, 403;
and drug testing, 410; fairness of, 440; and genetic testing, 573; and loyalty oaths, 873;
minimum-wage laws, 949; resumés, 1268; and wage discrimination, 1567
Hiroshima bombing, 105, 405, 584, 641-643, 1057, 1320, 1324
Hispanics and the Civil Rights movement, 254
Hiss, Alger, 1507
History; Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, on, 44, 632-633, 1120, 1603; Hitler, Adolf, on, 645;
Ibn Khaldūn on, 706; Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, on, 840-842; Marx, Karl, on, 903-906;
Marxist views of, 296; and moral equivalence, 955
Hitler, Adolf, 381-382, 522, 582, 643-645, 647-650, 675, 1027, 1030-1032, 1061, 1148,
1388; anti-Semitism of, 582, 651, 1030, 1229; and atom bomb, 104; on Bolshevism, 1148;
book burnings, 203; and concentration camps, 295; Final Solution, 1032; and the Holocaust, 647-648;
and Hussein, Saddam, 699; and Social Darwinism, 1028-1029; suicide, 651; and surrender, 1521;
and treason, 1508; worldview, 1028, 1029, 1148-1149
HIV. See Human immunodeficiency virus
Hobbes, Thomas, 646-647, 1018, 1457; on absolutism, 381; on altruism, 46-47; on
authoritarianism, 1553; and Bacon, Francis, 115; censorship of, 730; and descriptive
ethics, 1049; on egalitarianism, 423; on egoism, 424; on equality, 465; and ethical
egoism, 315, 1335; on ethical naturalism, 824; on fact/value distinction, 505; on free-riding, 538;
on honor, 674; on human nature, 300, 680, 698, 1359; on human rights, 684-685; on individualism, 730,
1257; on justice, 801-802; on law, 248; Leviathan, 381, 505, 538, 646, 801,
844, 1174, 1221, 1334, 1413, 1553; on morality, 964; on politics, 1147, 1516; on power, 1173-1174;
and practical reason, 1177; on self-interest, 448, 1334; on social contract theory, 1385-1386;
on sovereignty, 1404; on state of nature, 1413-1414; on war, 1569; on will, 1591; on work, 1603-1604
Hobson, A. J., 272
Hoffman, David, 837
Holistic medicine, 647
Holley, Horace, 15
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 204, 1455
Holmes, Peter, 159
Holmes, Robert L., 1047, 1570-1572
Holocaust, 583, 647-652, 1288; and advertising, 27; and anti-Semitism, 70; and bystanders, 188;
and choiceless choices, 241; and collective guilt, 269; concentration camps, 295;
and concept of the "other," 1076; cruelty during, 341; and Eichmann, Adolf, 1573;
and Hitler, Adolf, 643; and Israel, 777; reparations, 1260; and Schindler, Oskar,
1315-1316; and Wiesel, Elie, 1588
Holocaust denial, 586
Holy Land and Crusades, 654
Holy war, 653-657, 1259; jihad, 791; and suicide, 1429
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1977, 1250
Homeland defense, 657-658
Homeland Security, Department of, 657
Homeless care, 658-659
Homer; on courage, 494; on excellence, 494; on heroes, 1535; Odyssey, 968;
and Plato, 158; poetry of, 1256
Homicide, 660-661; assassination, 96-99; and cannibalism, 192; and euthanasia, 483-484;
moral justifications, 100; and robots, 1291; statistics, 38
Homophobia, 561, 564, 661-664, 931; and oppression, 1070; and political
correctness, 1143; and Roman Catholic priests scandal, 1297
Homosexuality, 664-668; and adultery, 23; and AIDS, 19; gay rights, 561-563; and
gender bias, 565; and hate-crime laws, 624; and homophobia, 661-663; and Islam, 773;
and Landers, Ann, 28; and Roman Catholic priests scandal, 1296-1297; and
Supreme Court, U.S., 1438
Hōnen, 1361
Honesty, 669-673; and leadership, 833; and plagiarism, 1127-1129; and polygraph tests, 1218
Hongren, 676
Honor, 674-675
Honor systems and codes, 675-676
Hooker, Worthington, 914
Hoover, Herbert, 659, 1269
Horkheimer, Max, 339
Horne, Herman Harrell, 707
Hosea, 629, 939
Hospers, John, 848
House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct, 306
House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC); and academic freedom, 15
Housing discrimination; and AIDS, 20
Hovevei Ziyyon, 1614
Hsün Tzu. See Xunzi
HUAC. See House Committee on Un-American Activities
Hubbard, L. Ron, 1322
Hubris, 995, 1182-1183
Hudson, Rock, 1358
Hughes, Holly, 90
Hughes, Langston, 1000
Huineng, 676
Hull, Cordell, 1666
Hull, Clark L., 700
Human genome, 568
Human Genome Project, 147, 570, 677-678, 1458; funding of, 1318; and genetic
screening, 141; and genetic testing, 572, 575; launching of, 570
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 925; and Rwanda genocide, 1243
Human nature, 679-682; and behaviorism, 120; and conflicts of interest, 300; Dewey,
John, on, 379; Freud, Sigmund, on, 551; and golden rule, 597; and hedonism, 681;
and humanism, 690; and rationality, 1340; and reason, 681
Human Nature and Conduct (Dewey), 683-684
Human rights, 684-687; and biochemical weapons, 132-136; and dignity, 383; and
diversity, 395; and English Bill of Rights, 443; and ethical relativism, 983; and
famine, 519; and Gewirth, Alan, 586; International Criminal Court, 752; Lemkin, Raphael, 839;
and multinational corporations, 983; and natural rights, 1021-1023; and prostitution, 1212;
and realpolitik, 1246; and reparations, 1260-1261; and rights and obligations, 1287-1288;
and slavery, 1376-1381; Truth and Reconciliation Commission, South African, 1401-1402;
and United Nations, 1524, 1526; and war crimes, 1573
Human Rights Information and Documentation Systems, 1675
Human Rights Watch, 688-689, 1676
Humane Society of the United States, 62, 342, 689-690, 1676; and zoos, 690
Humanism, 102, 274, 416, 690-691; and the Enlightenment, 445; and
existentialism, 498; and human nature, 690; and motivation, 976; and pacifism, 1080; and
rationality, 691; secular, 159, 1540; and skepticism, 691; and Thomism, 1257; and Xunzi, 1610
Humbard, Rex, 1467
Humboldt, Alexander von, 418
Hume, John, 1668
Hume, David, 692-693, 1248, 1461; on altruism, 47; atheism of, 445; on benevolence, 122;
censorship of, 730; on compassion, 284; on emotivism, 437; Enquiry Concerning the
Principles of Morals, An
, 447-448; on evil, 488; on hedonism, 681; on honor, 674;
on human nature, 681; on the ideal observer, 706; on impartiality, 720; on is/ought
distinction, 771; on naturalism, 1049; on practical reason, 1177; on pride, 1182;
skepticism of, 1041; on suicide, 1340; on suicide assistance, 1430; on value, 1536-1537; on will, 1590
Humility, 694-695; and televangelists, 1468
Humors theory, 57
Hunger, 695-698; and famine, 695-697; and lifeboat ethics, 858
Hunting, 63, 96, 342, 415, 450, 690, 1015-1016, 1255
Huntington's disease, 8, 571
Husayn, 698-699; and Yazid, 43
Hussein, Saddam, 382, 699-700, 770, 1453; and Kurds, 135; overthrow of, 770
Husserl, Edmund, 634, 1425
Hussites, 465
Hutcheson, Francis, 188, 706, 1359; on altruism, 47; on moral sense, 964
Hutu, 1228, 1302
Hydrogen bomb, 1054
Hypnosis, 700-701
Hypocrisy, 702-703; and self-righteousness, 1343

I
I and Thou (Buber), 704-705
Ibn al-Arabī, 704
Ibn Gabirol, 705
Ibn Khaldūn, 706
Ibn Rushd. See Averroës
Ibn Sīnā. See Avicenna
Ideal observer, 706
Idealism, 707-709; and Zhu Xi, 1612
Identity and surrogate motherhood, 1443
Identity theft, 289, 709-711; and biometrics, 146; and telemarketing, 1465
Identity Theft Deterrence Act of 1998, 709, 711
Ideology, 712-713
Illinois Institute of Technology, 472
Illness, 713-715; vs. "disease," 714; and pessimism, 1119
ILO. See International Labor Office. See International Labour Organisation
Imanishi-Kari, Thereza, 1319
ImClone, 1420
IMF. See International Monetary Fund
Immigration, 715-717; and citizenship, 247; and Rorty, Richard, 1298; and slavery, 1381
Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 715, 718
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, 718
Immorality and egoism, 425
Immortality, 113, 383, 718-719, 1132, 1134, 1457; Unamuno y Jugo, Miguel de, on, 1519
Impartiality, 720
Imperativism, 824
Imperialism, 271-272, 1609; and developing world, 376; historical phases, 272; Lenin,
Vladimir Ilich, on, 840-841; and racism, 1230, 1232; and realpolitik, 1246
In vitro fertilization (IVF), 720-723; and Brown, Louise, 722; and genetic testing, 574;
and sperm banks, 1406-1407; and surrogate motherhood, 1440-1442
Incest, 9, 13, 346, 414, 514, 723-724; and infanticide, 228; and Islam, 775; and
marriage, 969; and Rabbinic law, 1368; and taboos, 1447-1448
Income and tipping, 1487
Income distribution, 725-728; and minimum-wage laws, 949
Income levels and corporate compensation, 326-327
Incommensurability, 728-729
Incompatibilism. See Compatibilism
Incontinence and will, 1578
Index librorum prohibitorum, 158, 203, 729-730
India; Asoka, 96; caste system, 199-200; child labor in, 220; civil disobedience, 248;
famines, 696; Gandhi, Mohandas K., 558; independence movement, 249; Islam in, 792;
Jainism in, 781; Poona Pact, 1154; Sikhism in, 1364-1366; Thuggees, 100
Individual sovereignty, 846-847
Individualism, 730-731, 1149; and Beauvoir, Simone de, 117; and communitarianism, 279;
and egoism, 730; and professional ethics, 1200; and property, 1210
Industrial research, 732-733
Industrial Revolution, 1457; and business ethics, 181; and child labor legislation, 219;
and children's rights, 231; and communism, 276; and free-market economy, 421; and
imperialism, 272; and postmodernism, 1167; and progressivism, 1204
Inequality, 733-734; and free enterprise, 537; and socialism, 1391
Infanticide, 734-735; and birth defects, 153; among Eskimos, 670; and personhood, 6;
and Singer, Peter, 1372
Infidelity. See Adultery
Infomercials, 26, 736
Information access, 736-738; Freedom of Information Act, 548; and technology, 1462
Initiation rites, African, 34
Innocence, 1298-1299; childhood, 227; and war, 1570-1572
Innocent III, Pope, 654, 887-888
Inns of Court, English, 837. See also American Inns of Court
Inquisition, 544, 933; and Galileo, 203; and Index Librorum Prohibitorum, 729; torture in, 1499
INS. See Immigration and Naturalization Service
Insanity. See Mental illness
Insanity plea, 100
Insecurity; and adultery, 22; and aggression, 582; and bigotry, 129; and group therapy, 611;
and jealousy, 786; and social contract theory, 1385
Inside information, 739-740
Insider trading, 740-741; and advice columnists, 29; criminalization of, 1270; Stewart, Martha, 1420
Institute for Global Ethics, 1676
Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, 1676
Institute for World Order, 1101
Institute of International Law, 1665
Institutional review boards, 923-924, 927
Institutionalization of patients, 741-743
Insurance; medical, 919-921; unemployment, 403
Integral Nondualism, 1542
Integralism, Philosophy of, 1542
Integration, 743-745
Integrity, 746-747; and mentoring, 936
Intel Corporation v. Hamidi (2003), 428
Intellectual freedom; and Cynicism, 345-346
Intellectual property, 748-749, 1211; and computer technology, 294; and copyright, 324-325;
and Internet piracy, 761-762; and musicians, 183
Intelligence and robotics, 1291
Intelligence testing, 749-750
Intent; and libel, 845; and motivation, 975-976
Intention, 750-751; and morality, 970
Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 1676
International Arbitration Court, 1046
International Biometric Industry Association, 145
International Business Ethics Institute, 1676
International Campaign to Ban Landmines, 1668
International Council Against Bullfighting, 1607
International Court of Justice, 752, 754
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 751
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966), 450
International Criminal Court, 232, 752-753, 1573; and genocide, 583
International Humanist and Ethical Union, 691
International justice, 753-755; International Criminal Court, 752; and vigilantism, 753
International Labor Office (ILO), 221
International Labour Organisation (ILO), 755, 1667, 1677; and slavery, 220, 1380
International Labour Organization (ILO)
International law, 756-757; and developing world, 377; and entitlements, 450; and
genocide, 839; and Grotius, Hugo, 610; International Criminal Court, 752; and justice, 753-754;
and Lemkin, Raphael, 839; and mercenary soldiers, 938; and military ethics, 948; and
Nussbaum, Martha, 1062-1063; and rights and obligations, 1287; and sanctions, 1309-1310;
and sovereignty, 1403-1404
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 590, 758, 1172
International Nuclear Freeze Campaign, 1101
International Organization of Consumers Unions, 758-759
International Peace Bureau, 1046
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, 1667
International Red Cross, 578, 580, 687, 757, 759-760, 1046, 1677; and Geneva
Conventions, 578; Nobel Peace Prize, 1665-1667
International relations; Cold War, 266-268; and deterrence, 374; and globalization,
590-591; and isolationism, 776; Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 776-779; and League of
Nations, 833-835; and Monroe Doctrine, 951; and natural law, 610; North Atlantic
Treaty Organization, 1050; and peace studies, 1100-1101; peacekeeping missions, 1102-1103
International Society for Bioethics (SIBI), 1522
International Society for the Protection of Animals, 1607
Internet, 1461; advertising, 27; and computer crime, 286-289; electronic mail, 427;
and identity theft, 709-711; and Napster, 993-994; and plagiarism, 1126; pornography, 292;
viruses, 93
Internet chat rooms, 760-761
Internet piracy, 761-763; and copyright, 324
Intersubjectivity, 763-764, 1271
Intervention, 765-766
Intrinsic good, 766
Intuitionism, 766-767, 772, 825, 1248, 1278; ethical, 368; Moore, G. E., on, 953
Invasion of privacy, 768
IRA. See Irish Republican Army
Iran and capital punishment, 196
Iran-Iraq War, 770; chemical weapons, 215-216
"Irangate," 672, 1189, 1578
Iranian Revolution, 655, 792, 1277
Iraq, 768-770; biochemical weapons, 133; and Hussein, Saddam, 699-700; and Kurds, 687;
U.S. intervention, 1525; U.S. invasion, 861; and United Nations, 1526
Iraq-Iran War. See Iran-Iraq War
Iraq War and mercenary soldiers, 938
IRB. See Institutional review boards
Ireland; Phoenix Park murders, 100; potato famine, 697
Irish Republican Army (IRA), 655
Irrationality, 1286, 1519; and akrasia, 601, 1579; Aristotle on, 85; and
consistency, 318-319; and emotion, 1093-1096; and existentialism, 496, 498; and
faith, 1327; and guilt and shame, 613; and morality, 1248; and racial prejudice, 1228-1229;
and religion, 1248; and war, 1080; and weakness of will, 1579. See also Rationality
Irvine, William, 1089
Is/ought distinction, 475, 600, 771-772, 825, 967, 1248
Isaiah, 361
Islam, 772-775; in Africa, 35-36; and asceticism, 95; and birth control, 150; and
Būkhārī, al-, 178; and censorship, 204; and children's rights, 233;
and environmental movement, 456; and ethical monotheism, 473; and Fārābī, al-, 520;
Five Pillars, 95, 282, 773-774, 979, 1226, 1560; Hadīth, 616; and holy war, 655-657;
and homosexuality, 666; and Hussein, Saddam, 699; in Iraq, 769; and Jews, 70; and jihad, 791;
and Kindī, al-, 813; and Muhammad, 979; Nation of Islam, 996-997; and the Qurān, 1226-1227;
Shīa, 1361; Shiites, 769-770; Sufism, 1427; and suicide, 1429; and Sunnīs, 769-770,
1434; and usury, 774; and virtue, 1560. See also Muslims
Islamic Jihad, 778
Islamic law; Abū Hanīfah, 12; sharīa, 1360
Islamicism, 282
Isolationism, 776; and Monroe Doctrine, 951; and neutrality, 776
Israel; and counterterrorism, 1477; creation of, 71; and holy war, 655-656; and
Muslims, 792; and Zionism, 1614
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 776-779
Ivey, William J., 91

J
Jackson, Andrew, 81, 1015; sexual improprieties of, 257
Jackson, Jesse, 780-781; and censorship, 1398; and Farrakhan, Louis, 521,
780; on reparations, 77
Jackson, Michael, 998
Jacobellis v. Ohio (1964), 206, 1158
Jacobi, Friedrich, 1041
Jagger, Alison, 526
Jainism, 781-782, 809, 1047, 1365; and ahimsā, 42, 782; and ecology, 503; and
golden rule, 597; and Hindu caste, 199; and karma, 809; and nirvana, 1042; and nonviolence, 781;
origins, 781; and pacifism, 1079; and Vardhamāna, 1541; and vegetarianism, 782
James, William, 782-783, 1104; and conversion experiences, 324; and Dewey, John, 683;
on emotions, 1094; on God, 487; and Perry, Ralph Barton, 1112; on pluralism, 1138;
on pragmatism, 1177; and Royce, Josiah, 1300; on truth, 1512
Jansen, Cornelius, 1091
Jansenism, 1091-1092
Janus, Cynthia L., 1207
Janus, Sam, 1207
Japan; atom bomb attack on, 641-645; biochemical weapons, 135; Buddhism in, 401;
bushido code, 179-180; feudalism in, 180; Shintoism in, 1361-1362; Tokugawa era, 180;
in World War II, 783
Japanese American internment, 295-296, 783-785, 1004; and loyalty, 872; reparations, 1260
Jaspers, Karl, 270; and Arendt, Hannah, 82
Jay, John, 1404
JCT Center for Business Ethics & Social Responsibility, 1677
Jealousy, 785-787; sexual, 786. See also Envy
Jefferson, Thomas, 787, 1025-1026, 1328; on church and state, 1360; on church-state
separation, 244; on families, 514; on isolationism, 776; sexual improprieties of, 257
Jefferson Airplane, 1398
Jeffries, Leonard, 1275
Jehovah's Witnesses, 242, 647; and loyalty oaths, 873
Jen. See Ren
Jerusalem, 792; and United Nations, 777; Western Wall, 790
Jesuits, 42, 99, 229, 1092
Jesus Christ, 156, 282, 787-789, 1432, 1467-1468, 1473; absolutization of, 1487;
and asceticism, 95; Calvin, John, on, 189; and charity, 211, 907; and Christian
ethics, 241-242; and communism, 276; and compassion, 284; and Confessing Church, 156-157;
and conscientious objection, 313; crucifixion of, 939, 1259; on God, 594; and Ku Klux
Klan, 820; on loyalty, 871; and Luther, Martin, 876; and Mani, 896; as the Messiah, 943, 972;
pacifism of, 1079-1080; and Satan, 489; Sermon on the Mount, 241-242, 558, 1079; and
sin, 1368-1369; and situational ethics, 1373; on work, 1603
Jews; and frustration-aggression theory of genocide, 582; in Iraq, 769; nationalism
of, 1005; and Nazi Germany, 1027-1032; and pogroms, 1138; and professions, 30; and racial
prejudice, 1229; reparations for Holocaust, 1260; and Zionism, 1614. See also Holocaust; Judaism
Jihad, 775, 791-792; and holy war, 655-656
"Jim Crow," 1261; vs. affirmative action, 30; and Civil Rights Act of 1964, 250;
and Civil Rights movement, 253; laws, 391, 1232, 1576
Jinnah, Mohammed Ali, 1154
Job, Book of, 629-630, 968, 1517
Jodl, Alfred, 1061
"Joe Camel," 184-185
John, King (England), 412, 544-545, 887-888
John of Salisbury, 98
John of the Cross, Saint, 988
John Paul II, Pope, 1605
Johns Manville, 439
Johnson, James Weldon, 1000
Johnson, Lyndon B., 1307, 1330; and civil rights, 250; and equality, 467; and Freedom of
Information Act, 1222; and Vietnam War, 1551; War on Poverty, 672, 1584
Johnson, Virginia E., 1345
Jordan, Winthrop, 1230
Josephson Institute of Ethics, 1677
Jouhaux, Léon, 1666
Journalism, 794-795; and Accuracy in Media, 17; and electronic surveillance, 429;
and entrapment, 792-794; and Kevorkian, Jack, 811; media ownership, 910-911; photojournalism,
1122-1123; and professional ethics, 739, 1202
Joyce, James, 159
Joyce, William, 1507
Judaism, 282, 789-791; and asceticism, 95; and Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda, 116;
and casuistry, 202; and environmental movement, 456; and ethical monotheism, 473;
and forgiveness, 529; and free will, 601; and God, 789-791; and golden rule, 597; and
gossip, 603; and Hasidism, 622; Hebrew Bible, 628-629; and homosexuality, 666; and
Kabbala, 803; Levinas, Emmanuel, 845; and Maimonides, Moses, 889; on mercy, 938; and
morality, 968; and mysticism, 803; patriarchalism in, 901; and suicide, 1429; Talmud, 1449-1452;
Torah, 1496-1497; and violence, 1258; and work, 1602; and Zoroastrianism, 1617. See also Jews
Judges and adversary system, 23
Judicial activism, 1438
Judicial conduct code, 796
Judicial review, 1436
Julian, Percy, 1000
Julius Caesar, 98-99
Jung, Carl, 796-797, 930
Junzi, 305
Jurassic Park, 1318
Jurisprudence, 797-798; and law, 829-830
Jury system, 799
Just war theory, 800, 1474, 1476, 1550, 1554, 1568-1569, 1572; ethical questions, 1569;
Grotius, Hugo, on, 610; and Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, 641; and limited war, 860;
and peacekeeping missions, 1104; and terrorism, 1474, 1476; and Vietnam War, 1550-1551
Justice, 801-802; and fairness, 507-508; and health care, 916; and inequality, 733;
and mercy, 940; and merit, 940-941; and reconciliation, 1249; and Republic
(Plato), 1262-1263; South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 1401-1402;
theories of, 1479; and welfare rights, 1583-1584
Justinian I, 321, 618, 1021; and divorce, 398

K
Kabbala, 803; and the occult, 803; and tzaddik, 1517
Kagame, Paul, 1304
Kalī, 100
Kalish, Richard, 38
Kaltenbrunner, Ernst, 1061
Kamikaze suicide pilots, 655, 1362
Kannon, 112
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1850, 861
Kant, Immanuel, 291, 804-806; on autonomy, 111; on capital punishment, 194-195; on the
categorical imperative, 475, 598, 671, 673, 959, 1208; on cruelty to animals, 343;
on deontology, 368; on emotion, 284; on the Enlightenment, 1163; on evil, 1587;
on formalism, 600; Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, 532; and Freud, Sigmund, 551;
on golden rule, 318-319; on the good, 600; on honesty, 671, 673; on idealism, 707;
on immortality of the soul, 718; on infanticide, 735; on is/ought distinction, 771;
on lying, 878; Marx, Karl, on, 904; on moral law, 1459; on moral luck, 875; on morality, 967;
on motivism, 1425; on nature, 966; on practical reason, 1177; on prudence, 1214;
on retribution, 337; on right and wrong, 1281; on self-respect, 1341; on social justice, 1390;
and transcendentalism, 1505; on universalism, 1252; on universalizability, 1530;
on war, 1080; on will, 1592; on work, 1603
Kantian ethics, 806-808; and Cohen, Hermann, 807; and Habermas, Jürgen, 807; and
Rawls, John, 807; and supererogation, 1435; and war, 1570
Karen Finley et al. v. National Endowment for the Arts and John Frohnmayer (1992), 207
Karma, 154, 282, 808-809; and Buddha, 175; and Buddhism, 809; and caste, 200; and
death, 808; in Hinduism, 808-809; and Jainism, 809
Kasparov, Garry, 1291
Kassim, Abdul Karim, 770
Kautsky, Karl, 256
Keating, Charles H., Jr., 307
Keitel, Wilhelm, 1061
Kekes, John, 1137
Keller, Helen, 810
Kellogg, Frank B., 1666
Kelly, Marjorie, 1171
Kemal, Mustafa. See Atatürk
Kennan, George, 1031, 1189
Kennedy Institute of Ethics, 915, 1677
Kennedy, John F.; and the arts, 88; assassination of, 99, 250, 521; and civil rights, 486;
and Peace Corps, 1099-1100; Pulitzer Prize, 672; and unions, 496
Kennedy, Robert F., 999
Kepler, Johann, 1408, 1479
Kerner Commission, 254
Kesey, Ken, 431
Kevorkian, Jack, 810-811
Keyishian v. Board of Regents (1967), 874
Khadīja, 12, 43, 523, 979
Khmer Rouge, 583, 1527
Khomeini, Ayatollah, 160, 204
Khrushchev, Nikita, 268
Kidd, Benjamin, 493
Kierkegaard, Sřren, 280, 811-813, 1519, 1537; on altruism, 47; on desire, 870;
Either/Or, 426, 812; and existentialism, 497-498; on Hegel, G. W. F., 497;
on sin, 1370-1371; on truth, 1425
Kim Dae-jung, 1668
Kim Il Sung, 382
Kindī, al-, 813
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 814-815, 999; assassination of, 391; and Civil Rights
movement, 1035; and Civil Rights movement, 253-254; and Gandhi, Mohandas K., 558; and
Jackson, Jesse, 780; "Letter from Birmingham Jail," 629, 814, 1019; memorial to, 801;
and Montgomery bus boycott, 250; Nobel Peace Prize, 1667; and nonviolence, 1047, 1234,
1331, 1554-1555; plagiarism charges against, 1126
King, Rodney, 58, 799, 1141
King, T. J., 259
Kissinger, Henry, 675, 1045, 1667
Klaas, Polly, 1485
Knights Hospitaliers, 654
Knights of Labor, 52, 816
Knights Templars, 654
Knowledge and existentialism, 498
Kohlberg, Lawrence, 680, 816; and feminism, 526; on moral reason, 954
Kongfuzi. See Confucius
Kongzi. See Confucius
Koran. See Qurān
Korean War, 1551; biochemical weapons, 135
Korematsu v. United States (1943), 1004
Kosovo, 164, 296, 817-818; refugees, 1252
Krause, Karl Christian Friederich, 1085
Kreuger, Ivar, 330
Kristeva, Julia, 359
Kropotkin, Peter, 56
Krsna, 127-128, 200, 636
Krupp, Gustav, 1061
Ku Klux Klan, 128, 819-820, 1229, 1231, 1233; and ACLU, 51; and lynching, 880;
and Pan-Africanism, 1083
Kuan Yin, 112. See Avalokitesvara
Kudadjie, J. N., 35
Kuhlman, Kathryn, 510
Kuhn, Maggie, 605
Kuhn, Thomas, 1594
Kūkai, 821
K'ung Fu Tzu. See Confucius
K'ung Tzu. See Confucius
Kurds, 216, 699, 768-770; and Iraq, 687, 769; republic of, 770
Kurtz, Paul, 102
Kutak, Robert J., 262
Kuwait, 699, 768; Iraqi invasion, 770
Kwakiutl people, 581
Kwashiorkor, 697
Kyoto Protocols, 1459

L
Labor; children, 219-220, 227; and downsizing, 403; and equal
pay for equal work, 462
Labor relations and ethical codes, 471
Labor unions; American Federation of Labor (AFL), 52; Knights of Labor, 816; and
medical insurance, 920; and National Labor Relations Act, 1001; National Labor Union, 1002;
and prostitutes, 1212
Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947, 822
Lacan, Jacques, 359
Laden, Osama bin, 657, 775
Lafontaine, Henri, 1665
Lagarde, Paul de, 1030
LaHay, Beverly, 159
Lamas, Carlos Saavedra, 1666
Land mines, 822-823, 1251; and Human Rights Watch, 689; and Nobel Peace Prize, 1046
Landers, Ann, 28
Lange, Christian Lous, 1665
Lange, Carl, 1094
Langer, Lawrence, 240
Language, 823-825; and emotivism, 436-437; and intersubjectivity, 763-764; and is/ought
distinction, 771; and Native Americans, 1013; and political correctness, 1142-1143;
and prescriptivism, 1181; Socrates on, 1395
Language, Truth, and Logic (Ayer), 113, 379, 437, 505
Lao Tzu. See Laozi
Lao-tan. See Laozi
Laozi, 352-353, 825-826; and Mani, 896; and Zhuangzi, 1613
Lappé, Frances Moore, 1544
Larson, Bob, 1398
Las Casas, Bartolomé de, 1012
Lasch, Christopher, 604
Laughlin, Harry Hamilton, 1418
Laval, Pierre, 1507
Law, 827-830; and abortion, 4; and accountability, 16; and adultery, 22; adversary
system, 23; and cheating, 212; and deterrence, 374; erroneous convictions, 469;
vs. ethics, 827; and "everyone does it" justifications, 486; and Hart, H. L. A., 620-621;
and hate crimes, 624; and jurisprudence, 797-798, 829-830; and jury system, 799;
and legal positivism, 620; and logic, 889; and morality, 969-971; on responsibility, 1264;
and rights and obligations, 1287; three-strikes laws, 1485
Law enforcement; and arrest records, 86; and fingerprinting, 145; and Supreme Court, U.S., 1437
Lawal, Amina, 1360
Lawrence v. Texas (2003), 562
Lawyer for the situation, 831
Lay, Benjamin, 1
Lay, Kenneth, 1421
Lazarus, Arnold, 1095
Laziness, 831-832, 1286, 1342
Le Duc Tho, 1045, 1667
Leadership, 832-833; Machiavelli, Niccolň, on, 883-884
League of Red Cross Societies, 1667
League of Nations, 685, 833-835; Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1528; and
genocide, 839; and Iraq, 769; and slavery, 1380
League of Women Voters, 836, 1678
Learning theory and aggression, 39
Left, the; and accountability, 16; and political correctness, 1142
Legal ethics, 837-838; and professional ethics, 1201
Legal positivism; and Hart, H. L. A., 620-621
Legalism, Chinese, 381, 826, 1223, 1613
Legion of Decency, 205
Lehrfreiheit, 15
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 838-839, 1320; on truth, 1511; on will, 1591
Lemkin, Raphael, 583, 839
Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, 324, 358, 839-843; on assassination, 100; on capitalism, 272;
on class struggle, 256; dictatorship, 1149, 1173; labor camps, 614; and Marxism, 277,
1277; and party discipline, 1410; and Stalin, Joseph, 1410; on violence, 1556
Leo IV, Pope, 654
Leo IX, Pope, 654
Leo X, Pope, 14
Leo XIII, Pope, 1433
Leohardi, Hermann von, 1085
Leonard, Stephen T., 339
Leopold, Aldo, 361, 503, 843-844
Leprosy, 1607
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 70, 1495
Leviathan (Hobbes), 381, 505, 538, 646, 801, 844, 1174, 1221, 1413, 1553;
on self-interest, 1334
Levinas, Emmanuel, 845, 1076; and Derrida, Jacques, 369-370
Leviticus, 629
Lewinsky, Monica, 257-258
Lewis, C. S., 343, 490, 553, 1561
Lewis, Hunter, 959
Lewy, Guenter, 1552
Ley, Robert, 1061
Li, 304, 306, 928, 1568, 1610, 1612
Li chi. See Li Ji
Li ji (Xunzi), 1610
Liability and product safety, 1192-1195
Libel, 203, 546, 845-846; and Roman law, 544; vs. slander, 845; Supreme Court, U.S., on, 1035
Liberalism, 846-847; classical, 316-317, 848, 1149, 1516; and communitarianism, 280;
and democracy, 366; and libertarianism, 847; and neoconservatism, 316; and Two
Treatises of Government
(Locke), 1516
Liberation theology and violence, 1555
Liberator, 2
Libertarianism, 847-848; and consent, 315; and conservatism, 316; and corporate
compensation, 327; and determinism, 373; and drug testing, 410; and health care
allocation, 627; and incompatibilism, 373; and morality, 970; and taxes, 1453
Liberty. See Freedom
Libraries and computer misuse, 292
Library Bill of Rights, 849
Libya, 998; and terrorism, 893
Lieberman, Joseph, 1399
Life, 849-857; and abortion, 6; and death, 854-857; defined, 734, 854-856, 1416;
meaning of, 849-853
Life expectancy; in developing nations, 1171; and genetic engineering, 571; and race, 513
Lifeboat ethics, 385, 858, 1612
Lifestyles, 859-860
Limbaugh, Rush, 1446
Limited war, 860-861
Lincoln, Abraham, 861-862, 1379; and Emancipation Proclamation, 2, 434-435, 862; egoism of, 1279
Linnaeus, Carolus, 418
Linzey, Andrew, 343
Lipit-Ishtar, Code of, 617, 660
Literature; and ethics, 995; and moral philosophy, 995
Literocracy, 303-304
Litigation; and arbitration, 82; and ethical codes, 472; and personal injury lawyers, 1113
Little Rock, Arkansas, desegregation crisis, 171, 253
Lobbying, 862-863; American Association of Retired Persons, 50; Human Rights Watch, 689;
Nader, Ralph, 990; and National Endowment for the Arts, 89
Lobotomy, 863-865; and mental illness, 933
Locke, John, 448, 865-866, 1018, 1507, 1513; on consent, 315; on cruelty, 342; and
Declaration of Independence, 357; on egalitarianism, 423; epistomology of, 964;
on human rights, 684; on individualism, 730; on infanticide, 735; and libertarianism, 848;
on nature, 966; and Nussbaum, Martha, 1062; on parenting, 1089; on property, 421;
and Shaftesbury, third earl of, 1359; on social contract theory, 1386; on state of
nature, 1414; Two Treatises of Government, 1516; on violence, 1474; on work, 1604
Logic, 1247-1248, 1513; and Abelard, Peter, 1; Berdyayev, Nikolay, on, 124; Cartesian, 1512;
and collective action, 1087; and deconstruction, 359; and existentialism, 497; and al-Ghazālī,
587-588; and Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 632; and law, 889; logical positivism, 113;
and morality, 971; and "slippery-slope" arguments, 1383; and Zen Buddhism, 402
Logical positivism, 113, 475, 824; and Ayer, A. J., 114; and emotivism, 437
Lollards, 465
Lombroso, Cesare, 1547
"Lord Haw-Haw," 1507
Lorenz, Konrad; on aggression, 39, 1553; on ethology, 493
Lotteries, 867-869
"Louie Louie," 1397
Louis XIV, 952, 1092
Love, 869-870; and Christian ethics, 241, 243; and family values, 517; and golden
rule, 598; Jesus Christ on, 788; King, Martin Luther, Jr., on, 814; and patriotism, 1099
Love Bug worm, 289
Love Canal, 1502
Lovejoy, Arthur O., 15
Lovelock, James, 558
Loyalty, 871-872; and conscientious objection, 313; and piety, 871; and treason,
1506-1507; and whistleblowing, 1585
Loyalty oaths, 872-874; and art, 89
Luck, 874; and gambling, 867-868; and inequality, 734; and karma, 808; moral,
955-956, 971, 1034
Lucretius, 691
"Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds," 1397
Ludacris, 993
Lust, 875; Jesus Christ on, 241, 788
Luther, Martin, 876-877, 1533; and Augustine, Saint, 108; censorship of, 203; on
divorce, 398; on duty, 1435; on equality, 465; on tyrants, 99
Lutheranism, 156
Lutuli, Albert, 1046; Nobel Peace Prize, 1666
Lying, 213, 877-878; and perjury, 1110
Lynch, William, 879
Lynch v. Donnelly (1984), 244
Lynching, 188, 879-881, 1233; legislation against, 254; and racial prejudice, 1229
Lysenko, T. D., 1320

M
MacBride, Seán, 1667
McCarthy, John, 1289
McCarthy, Joseph R., 882; and academic freedom, 15
McCorvey, Norma ("Jane Roe"), 1293
MacDonald, Ramsay, 1154
McDonald's Restaurants, 184
McDowell, John, 961
McGinnis, James, 1102
McGinnis, Kathleen, 1102
Machiavelli, Niccolň, 883-885, 1008, 1174, 1507; on cruelty, 340; on dirty hands, 386;
on nationalism, 1007; Prince, The, 340, 386, 883-884, 1174; on private vs. public morality, 1189
Machines and postmodernism, 1167
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 279-280, 495, 885-886, 1256
Mackie, John, 1252
McKinley, William, 56, 100, 1576
MacKinnon, Catharine, 160, 1160-1161, 1243
McLaurin v. Oklahoma (1950), 1330
Maclean, Donald, 1507
McNamara, Robert, 1307
McNaughtan, Daniel, 100
McVeigh, Timothy, 1474
Mādhyamaka, 886-887
Madison, James; and Bill of Rights, 130; on conscientious objection, 313; on sovereignty, 1404
"Mafiaboy," 289
Magna Carta, 544-545, 887-888; and due process, 412; on loyalty, 872
Magna Moralia (Aristotle?), 83
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act of 1975, 1574
Mahāvīra. See Vardhamāna
Mahābāhrata, 127
Mahāyāna Buddhism, 154, 176-178, 809, 991, 1043, 1611; and
Nāgārjuna, 991; and Shinran, 1361
Mahvra. See Vardhamāna
Maier, Hans, 652
Mail, electronic, 427
Maimonides, Moses, 48, 791, 889-890, 1496-1497
Malaria, 1607
Malatesta, Enrico, 56
Malcolm X, 521, 890-891, 996; on violence, 1555
Malcolm, Janet, 795
Male bonding, 1115
Malebranche, Nicholas, 1591
Malpractice, legal, 106
Malthus, Thomas, 41, 419, 492, 555, 659, 891-892; and birth control, 150; on
population control, 555
Mandela, Nelson, 76, 892-894, 1401; Nobel Peace Prize, 1046, 1668
Mandeville, Bernard, on altruism, 47
Manhattan Project, 104, 894-895, 1320
Mani, 895-896
Manichaeanism, 489, 895-896
Manifest destiny, 897
Manson, Marilyn, 1399-1400
Manu, Code of, 200, 666
Mao Zedong, 382, 1173; and famine, 520; mass murders of, 583
Mapplethorpe, Robert, 89, 897
Marbury v. Madison (1803), 1439
Marcel, Gabriel, 497
Marcus Aurelius, 898
Marcuse, Herbert, 339, 1458, 1605
Margolin, Gayla, 515
Margulis, Lynn, 558
Mariana, Juan de, 99
Marijuana, 408-409
Marital rape, 1243
Marketing, 898-900; and consumerism, 323; sales ethics, 1305; telemarketing, 1464
Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, 1459, 1678
Marlowe, Christopher, 99
Marriage, 900-902, 1115, 1117; and adultery, 22, 1355, 1473; African, 34-35; and
apartheid, 74; Aristotle on, 1114; and birth control, 609-610, 720; and divorce, 397-400;
and family, 511-513; and feminism, 1115; gay, 665; and group therapy, 612; and Hammurabi's code, 618;
and homosexuality, 561-562; and incest, 724, 969; interracial, 744, 997, 1233; and jealousy, 786;
Jesus Christ on, 789; in Jewish tradition, 875; and personal relationships, 1114;
Plato on, 514, 1114; and population control, 150; and premarital sex, 1179; and
rights and obligations, 1287; and romance, 1115; and surrogate motherhood, 1441-1442
Marshall, George C., 882, 902; Nobel Peace Prize, 1666
Marshall, John, 130, 1456
Marshall, Thurgood, 170, 999
Marshall Plan, 902; and the Cold War, 268
Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, 1420
Martin, Judith, 481
Martin, Michael W., 122
Marty, Martin E., 280
Marx, Karl, 903-904; on alienation, 44-45; on capitalism, 712, 1604; censorship of, 203;
on class confict and morality, 968; on class struggle, 255-256; on communism, 276-277;
Communist Manifesto, The, 277-278; and critical theory, 339; on distributive
justice, 392; on free markets, 421-422; on gratitude, 604; and Hegel, Georg Wilhelm
Friedrich, 1120; on human nature, 680; ideology of, 712, 1147-1148, 1584; and King, Martin
Luther, Jr., 1554; and Lenin, V. I., 840; and Marxism, 905; on morality, 968; on power, 1174;
on socialism, 1391-1392; on violence, 1556; on work, 1604
Marxism, 905-906, 1147-1148; and feminism, 1597; and Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, 841;
and Marx, Karl, 903-904; and military ethics, 947; and violence, 1556; and work, 1604
Mary, Virgin, 91, 523, 1228
"Mary Ellen," 218
Maslow, Abraham, 680
Mass murder and genocide, 583
Massachusetts Music Industry Coalition, 1400
Masters, William H., 1345
Materialism; and advertising, 24; and realpolitik, 1246
Mather, Cotton, 923
Mather, Stephen, 1003
Mathers, Marshall, III (Eminem), 1399-1400
Mattachine Society, 665
Matza, David, 486
Mauritania; slavery, 1379
Maurya Dynasty, 96
Maximal vs. minimal ethics, 906-908
Maxims; Kant, Immanuel, on, 805
May, Larry, 270
May, Mark, 209
Mbiti, John S., 33
Mead, George Herbert, 1177
Mean/ends distinction, 908-909
Meaninglessness, 11
Mecca, 12, 178; and the hajj, 178, 282, 774, 1560; Kaba, 282; and Muhammad, 979, 1226; and prayer, 773
Mecklin, John M., 15
Medawar, Peter, 1072
Médecins Sans Frontičres, 1668
Media ethics; and news sources, 1035-1036; photojournalism, 1122-1123
Media Institute, 1678
Media ownership, 910-912
Medicaid, 726, 728, 920; and smoking-related illnesses, 1490
Medical bills of rights, 912-914
Medical ethics, 81, 914-918; abortion, 3-9; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 19-21;
advertising, 27; and Amnesty International, 55; behavior therapy, 118; brain death, 166-167;
and confidentiality, 297; diagnosis, 380; electroshock therapy, 430-431; genetic
testing, 572-574; Hippocrates, 638-639; and informed consent, 139; lobotomy, 863-864;
medical bills of rights, 912-913; and medical insurance, 919-921; and pain, 1081; and
physician-patient relationship, 1124-1125; Principles of Medical Ethics, 1183; and professional ethics, 1201;
and Razi, al-, 1244; and therapist-patient relationship, 1480-1481
Medical insurance, 919-921; and biometrics, 146; and employee safety, 439; and genetic
profiling, 147; and genetic testing, 573
Medical research, 914-915, 917, 922-927; and abortion, 8; and biochemical weapons, 136;
and children, 222; ethical norms, 924-925; and National Commission for Protection of
Human Subjects of Research, 1000; and Nazi science, 1029; and Nuremberg Code, 915;
stem cells, 1415-1417; and vivisection, 60
Medicare, 50, 726, 728, 920; and smoking-related illnesses, 1490
Medicare Act of 1965, 38, 467
Medici, Lorenzo de, 883-884, 1174
Medina, 12, 178; and Muhammad, 43, 979
Meditation and Buddhism, 155
Meier, Asher, 761
Meiklejohn, Alexander, 204, 545
Melanchthon, Philipp, 99, 1435
Melissa virus, 289
Memoirs v. Massachusetts (1966), 206
Menard v. Mitchell (1971), 737
Menchú, Rigoberta, 1668
Mencius, 303-304, 928-929, 1610; and Zhu Xi, 1612
Mendel, Gregor Johann, 570, 1388
Mendelssohn, Moses, 1495
Menedemus, 345
Mengzi. See Mencius
Menippus of Gadara, 345
Menninger, Karl, 1371
Men's movement, 929-931
Mental illness, 931-935; and rights of accused, 19; and electroshock therapy, 430;
Foucault, Michel, on, 531; and institutionalization of patients, 741-742; and lobotomy,
863-864; and psychopharmacology, 1219-1220
Mentoring, 936-937; and American Inns of Court, 53
Mercenary soldiers, 937-938
Merchant, Carolyn, 417
Mercy, 938-940; and justice, 940; and reason, 940; and reconciliation, 1249
Merit, 940-942
Merton, Robert, 732
Mesmer, Franz Anton, 700
Mesopotamia, 617-618, 792, 1367, 1376; and Mongols, 1324
Messianism, 942-943, 1452; and Hitler, Adolf, 645; and Jesus Christ, 972; and
Kabbalism, 804; and nationalism, 1006, 1008; and Washington, Booker T., 1577
Metaethics, 264, 461, 474, 824, 943-944, 1460; and applied ethics, 943; and
Derrida, Jacques, 369
Metaphysics; and absolutism, 10; and accountability, 16; and alienation, 44; and
Derrida, Jacques, 369; and Descartes, René, 370; and Kant, Immanuel, 532;
and responsibility, 1264-1266
Metaphysics of Morals, The (Kant), 804-805
Metrocles of Maronea,, 345
Mexico, 1013; Aztec culture, 1258; prostitutes in, 1212; suffrage in, 1427; and
United States, 715, 820, 897
Middle East; Israeli-Palestinian conflict, 776-779; Suez Crisis, 1103
Miescher, Friedrich, 570
Milgram, Stanley, 945
Milgram experiment, 945-946
Military conscription and Equal Rights Amendment, 463
Military ethics, 946-947; and Art of War, The (Sunzi), 92; biochemical
weapons, 132-136; chemical weapons, 214-216; and chivalry, 237; and homosexuals, 407, 562;
homeland defense, 657; and intervention, 765; just war theory, 800; limited war, 860;
peacekeeping missions, 1102-1103; scorched-earth policies, 1323-1324; and unconditional
surrender, 1520-1521; and veterans' rights, 1545; weapons research, 1579-1580
Milken, Michael, 741
Mill, John Stuart, 948-949; and Bentham, Jeremy, 948; on coercion, 828; on free speech, 545;
on harm, 620; on hedonism, 631, 681; on impartiality, 720; on liberalism, 846; and
naturalistic fallacy, 1024; On Liberty, 1067-1068; on parenting, 1089; on paternalism, 1098;
on pride, 1182; on privacy, 1187; on punishment, 195; on tolerance, 1495
Miller, Arthur, 203, 1504
Miller, Neal, 582
Miller, Tim, 90
Miller v. California (1973), 206, 1159, 1161
Milliken v. Bradley (1974), 744
Milošević, Slobodan, 164, 818; and Kosovo, 817
Milton, John, on censorship, 545
Minarchism, 848
Minimum-wage laws, 122, 506, 949, 1181; and tipping, 1488
Miranda v. Arizona (1966), 950-951, 1437
Mises, Ludwig von, 848
Mishima, Yukio, 180
Mishnah, 789, 889, 1449-1452
"Miss Manners," 481
"Mississippi appendectomies," 1418
Miyamoto Musashi, 180
Mo Ti. See Mozi
Mo Tzu. See Mozi
Model Code of Judicial Conduct, 796
Model Code of Professional Responsibility, 107
Model Rules of Professional Conduct, 107, 262, 831, 837-838
Modernism and postmodernism, 1167
Mogul Empire, 42
Mohammedanism. See Islam
Mohism, 928, 977-978, 1613
Mohr, Richard, 561
Molina, Luis de, 1092
Moltmann, Jürgen, 1605
Monarchism, 1210
Moneta, Ernesto Teodoro, 1665
Monimus of Syracuse, 345
Monism; and pluralism, 1137; and Vedānta, 1541-1542
Monmouth, Duke of, 1507
Monopoly, 727, 748, 951
Monotheism, 69, 282, 628; ethical, 473; and God, 69; and Islam, 979; and Moses,
972; and sin, 1367
Monroe, James, 897
Monroe Doctrine, 951-952
Montagnier, Luc, 1320
Montaigne, Michel de, 340, 383, 1332; tolerance of, 1495
Montesquieu, 952-953; and anti-Semitism, 70; on honor, 674
Montgomery bus boycott, 249, 252-253, 1064, 1234, 1554
Montreal Protocols, 1459; and CFCs, 1461
Moore, G. E., 101, 265, 772, 953, 1248, 1272, 1466-1467; on is/ought distinction, 772;
and naturalistic fallacy, 475, 600, 619, 631, 766, 824, 944, 961, 1024, 1049, 1248,
1536-1537; and nonnaturalism, 1112; on truth, 1512, 1514; on utilitarianism, 1532
Moorish Science Temple, 996
Moral agents, 282, 368; and absolutism, 10; and altruism, 1066; and autonomy,
111, 1385; and duty, 413; and equality, 464; and feminism, 526, 1597-1598; and good
action, 600; and humanism, 691; and Kantian ethics, 806-807, 1425; Locke, John, on, 1516;
and Mencius, 928; and moral law, 1483; and moral realism, 961; and responsibility, 1264;
and sentience, 1343; and will, 1590
Moral development, 84, 960, 1089; Dewey, John, on, 377; and family values, 517; Kohlberg,
Lawrence, on, 680, 816; and relationships, 1116; and self-control, 1332
Moral discourse, 279, 943, 1332; conventions of, 396; and emotivism, 436-437; and metaethics, 943
Moral education, 619, 953-955, 964, 1610; and Aristotelian ethics, 83-84; and punishment, 338
Moral equivalence, 955
Moral imperatives, 957-960
Moral luck, 874, 955-957
"Moral majority," 205
Moral philosophy and literature, 995
Moral principles, 957-960
Moral realism, 961-962
Moral relativism; and diversity, 395; and pluralism, 1137
Moral responsibility, 962-963
Moral rules, 957-960
Moral-sense theories, 964-965
Moral Treatment Revolution, 933
Morality, 967-971; and abortion, 4, 1294; and accountability, 16; African, 31, 33, 35;
altruism, 46-49; and art, 87; Augustine, Saint, on, 108; and autonomy, 110-111; and
Buddha, 175; and Buddhism, 155; and casuistry, 201; and character, 209; and choiceless
choices, 240; and conscience, 969; and consequentialism, 315; and corruption, 331; and
cruelty, 340-341; Dewey, John, on, 378; and divine command theory, 395-396; and duty, 413-414;
vs. ethics, 479; and existentialism, 496, 498-499; and freedom, 540; and globalization, 592;
and God, 593-594; and the good, 598-601; and Hinduism, 636; Hobbes, Thomas, on, 646;
and intentionality, 970; and intervention, 765; and irrationality, 1248; and Islam, 775;
and law, 828, 969-971; and logic, 971; and luck, 874; Marx, Karl, on, 904; and metaethics, 943-944;
moral equivalence, 955; and mysticism, 986; and Nietzsche, Friedrich, 127; and nihilism, 886;
and objectivism, 1249; and permissible acts, 1111; private vs. public, 1188-1189;
and punishment, 1223; and rationality, 1248; and realpolitik, 1246; and reason, 551,
707, 960, 969, 1121, 1278; and universalizability, 1530; and will, 1590
More, Thomas, 78; Utopia, 1533-1534
Moreno, Jacob, 611
Morgan, Lewis H., 493
Mortgages, 1250
Mosaic law and adultery, 22
Moses, 618, 871, 875, 939, 958, 971-973, 1226, 1450, 1472, 1496-1497; and
God, 594; and Ten Commandments, 629
Moses ben Maimon. See Maimonides, Moses
Moslems. See Islam; Muslims
Moss, Pamela A., 1180
Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), 973
Motion picture ratings systems, 973-975
Motivation, 975-977
Mott, John R., 1666
Mott, Lucretia, 1426
Motze. See Mozi
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 426, 962
Mozi, 928, 977-978
MPPDA. See Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America
Muawiyya, 43, 1361
Muhammad, 772, 979; and Abū Bakr, 12; and Alī ibn Abī Tālib, 43;
on asceticism, 95; and environmental movement, 456; and Hadīth, 616; and the Qurān,
1226-1227; successor of, 12; and virtue, 1560; and women's rights, 775
Muhammad, Elijah, 521, 996
Muhammad, Warith Deen, 996
Muir, John, 980-981, 1364
Müller, Max, 1012
Multiculturalism, 394, 981-982; and communitarianism, 280; and diversity, 394; and
ecofeminism, 417; and immigration, 716; and political correctness, 1142
Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, 1109-1110
Multinational corporations, 983-984
Mumford, Lewis, 1458
Münzer, Thomas, 276
Muravyov, Mikhail Nikolayevich, 579
Murder, 375, 660, 670, 969-971, 1368, 1370, 1497; and abortion, 4, 1204-1205, 1284-1285,
1495; assassination, 96-99; Augustine, Saint, on, 1554; and birth control, 150;
and capital punishment, 193-196; and corruption, 331; and deterrence, 195-196; and
egoism, 425; and "ethnic cleansing," 479-480; and Hammurabi's code, 618; and the
Holocaust, 647-652; Jesus Christ on, 788; and lynching, 879-881; and pogroms, 1139;
and Ten Commandments, 1473; and utilitarianism, 1532
Murdoch, Iris, 1601
Murdoch, Rupert, 911
Muslims; in Bosnia, 163-164; in Palestine, 776; and slavery, 1376. See also Islam
Mussolini, Benito, 135, 522, 835, 1009, 1148-1149
Mutually assured destruction, 985
My Lai massacre, 1064, 1552
Myanmar civil war, 223, 1571
Myers, David, 37
Myrdal, Alva, 1667
Mysticism, 985-989; and Christian ethics, 242; and Ghazālī, al-, 587; and
Hallāj, al-, 616; and Hasidism, 622; and Judaism, 803; and the occult, 985;
and sufism, 587, 1427; and Upanisads, 986, 988; and Vedānta, 1541-1542

N
NAACP. See National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Nader, Ralph, 323, 456, 990-991; and Green Party, 607; on World Trade Organization, 1608
Naess, Arne, 361
NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Area
Nāgārjuna, 886, 991
Nagasaki bombing, 105, 405, 584, 641-643, 1320, 1324
Nagel, Thomas, 992-993
Nānak, 992; and Sikhism, 1364
Nandi people, 33
Nansen International Office for Refugees, 1666
Nansen, Fridtjof, 1665
Napoleon Bonaparte, 952, 1323; and censorship, 203; and fascism, 522
Napster, 762, 993-994
Narcissism, 551, 995, 1337-1338; Freud, Sigmund, on, 551; and group therapy, 612
Narcissus, 995
Narrative ethics, 995
Narveson, Jan, 1089
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 164
Nation of Islam, 996-998; and ACLU, 51; Farrakhan, Louis, 521
National Academy of Sciences, 1459
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 254
National-American Woman Suffrage Association, 1413
National Anti-Vivisection Society, 998, 1678
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 160, 999-1000,
1678; and Brown v. Board of Education, 170; and Civil Rights movement, 252, 254;
Evers, Medgar, 485; and segregation, 1330
National Bioethics Advisory Commission, 1417, 1459
National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC), 912
National Campaign for Freedom of Expression, 1400
National Coalition Against Censorship, 1400
National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and
Behavioral Research, 923, 1000-1001
National Conference of State Legislatures, 1679
National Council of Senior Citizens, 38
National Council on the Arts, 90
National Do Not Call Registry, 1465
National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), 88-91, 207; and Mapplethorpe, Robert, 897
National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), 88, 91
National Enquirer, 1446
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 1001, 1679
National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, 506, 1001
National Institutes of Health, U.S., 1458; Human Genome Project, 677-678
National Labor Relations Act of 1935, 822, 1001-1002
National Labor Union, 52, 1002
National Legal and Policy Center, 1679
National Negro Committee, 999
National Organization for Women (NOW), 1002, 1087, 1679; and abortion, 1285
National Organization of Changing Men (NOCM), 930
National Organization of Men (NOM), 930
National Organization of Men Against Sexism (NOMAS), 930
National Parenting for Peace and Justice Education Network, 1102
National Park System, U.S., 455, 1003; and Muir, John, 980-981
National parks and Sierra Club, 1364
National Press Photographers Association, 1123
National Retired Teachers Association, 50
National Science Foundation, 1458
National security, 1003-1005; and censorship, 1106, 1222; and Cold War, 266-268;
and drug testing, 410; and freedom of expression, 546; and Freedom of Information
Act, 549; and Japanese American internment, 784; and realpolitik, 1246; and sovereignty, 1003-1005,
1403-1404; and technology, 1459, 1461
National Security Agency (NSA), 738
National Society of Professional Journalists, 1035
National Urban League, 252
National Woman Suffrage Association, 1426
National Woman's Party, 1427
Nationalism, 1005-1009; and assassination, 100; and colonialism, 1007; and Hitler,
Adolf, 645; and loyalty, 872; and messianism, 1006, 1008; and Nazism, 1030; and
patriotism, 1098; and racial prejudice, 1228; and violence, 1007
Native Americans, 1012-1013; and adultery, 22 and casinos, 1009-1011; and Civil Rights
movement, 254; and ecology, 503; enslavement of, 1376; and environmental movement, 456;
genocide of, 585, 1013-1016; languages, 129; and racial prejudice, 1229; and reparations, 78,
1260; reservation system, 295
NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Natural law, 1016-1020; and abortion, 4; and conscience, 969; and conservatism, 317;
and custom, 344-345; and Grotius, Hugo, 610; and just wars, 800; and reason, 756,
1414, 1483; Voltaire on, 1565
Natural resources; rain forests, 1235; sustainability, 1443-1445; and technology, 1462
Natural Resources Defense Council, 456
Natural rights, 1021-1023; and homelessness, 659; Leviathan (Hobbes) on, 844;
and rights and obligations, 1288
Natural selection, 59, 284, 354, 491-493, 577, 621, 926, 1387, 1393, 1461
Naturalism and hedonism, 1049
Naturalistic fallacy, 475, 600, 619, 631, 766, 824, 944, 961, 1024-1025,
1049, 1248, 1536-1537
Nature; rights of, 1025-1026; human dominion over, 402-403
Nature Conservancy Council, 1027
Nazi Germany, 1030-1032; anti-Semitism in, 70, 582; and atom bomb, 895; and
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 156-157; and Eichmann, Adolf, 1573; and eugenics, 483; euthanasia in, 483, 735;
and fascism, 522, 1030, 1147; and Hitler, Adolf, 643; and the Holocaust, 647-652;
and League of Nations, 835; medical experiments in, 584, 923; and Nuremberg Trials, 1060;
and science, 1027-1029; sterilization in, 1419; and Tillich, Paul, 1487; and Treaty of Versailles, 1508
NEA. See National Endowment for the Arts
"NEA Four," 90-91
Neal, Claude, 880
Needs and wants, 1033
Negligence, 1033-1034; and product safety, 1194
Negotiation; and compromise, 285; and conflict resolution, 301-302
NEH. See National Endowment for the Humanities
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 164, 559
Nelson, Gaylord, 417
Nemesis, 995
Neocolonialism, 221, 493
Neo-Confucianism and Zhu Xi, 1612
Nero, 345, 544
Nestlé, 165, 186
Neurath, Constantin von, 1061
Neuroses; and hypnosis, 700; and Internet chat room, 760; an narcissism, 995; and
revenge, 1273; and violent behavior, 1553
Neutrality; and International Red Cross, 760; and isolationism, 776; of medical
personnel, 578; and peacekeeping missions, 164, 1102-1104; rights of, 580
Neutralization and "everyone does it" justifications, 486
Nevada, gambling in, 867
Nevin, John A., 607
New Deal, 89, 535, 658, 882, 1584; and minimum-wage laws, 949
New England Watch and Ward Society, 205
New morality and premarital sex, 1179
New Testament, 108, 939, 1450; on the Devil, 489; on equality, 465; on faith, 1561;
family values in, 517; on forgiveness, 529; on lust, 875; on mercy, 939; on sin, 1368-1370;
and Ten Commandments, 1473; on virtue, 1561
New York Daily News, 1446
New York Society for Ethical Culture, 283
New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NYSPCC), 218
New York Times, The, 1127; Pentagon Papers, 739, 792, 794, 1106
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964), 846, 1035
Newkirk, Ingrid, 63, 1107
News media; and Accuracy in Media, 17; photojournalism, 1122-1123; and public's
right to know, 1222
News sources, 1035-1037
Newspapers; and advice columnists, 28; and American Society of Newspaper Editors, 53;
censorship of, 1035; ownership, 910-911; and sports betting, 126; tabloids, 1446
Newton, Isaac, 1320, 1457, 1478, 1505, 1512; and the Enlightenment, 444; influence
of, 1318; and religion, 964
Nicholas II, 578, 1517
Nicholas V, Pope, 1231
Nicole, Pierre, 1092
Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 83-85, 474, 958, 1037, 1214, 1337-1338, 1560-1562;
and Boethius, 156; on courage, 333-334; on desire, 372; on excellence, 494; on friendship, 552;
on golden mean, 596; on humility, 695; on justice, 508; on loyalty, 871; on self-control, 1332;
on teleology, 1466; on virtue, 597
Nicomachus, 1037
Niebuhr, H. Richard, 1037-1038; on revelation, 1272
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 1038, 1188; on coercion, 263
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 1038-1040, 1519; on altruism, 47; on atheism, 102; on benevolence, 122;
Beyond Good and Evil, 126; on compassion, 284; on cruelty, 341; on elitism, 433;
and existentialism, 497, 499; and genealogy, 531; on God, 489; on gratitude, 604;
on hate, 622-623; on mercy, 940; on morality, 967-968; on nihilism, 1041-1042; on power, 1139,
1172, 1174; on Socrates, 852; on superman, 1174, 1504; on tragedy, 1503; on wisdom, 1594
Nigeria, civil war, 697
Nigerian Internet scam, 287-288
Nightingale, Florence, 578
Nihilism, 1040-1042; and the absurd, 11; Beauvoir, Simone de, on, 117; and
Buddhism, 1043; and deconstruction, 359-360; Derrida, James, and, 359; ethical, 967;
and meaning of life, 850; and morality, 886; Nietzsche, Friedrich, on, 1504; and
rap music, 1400; and reason, 1041
Nike, 186
Nine-Eleven, 27, 72, 657, 1004, 1260, 1459, 1474; and biochemical weapons, 132; and
chemical weapons, 215; hijackers, 1004; and holy war, 657, 775; and homeland security, 657;
and Islam, 792; and national security, 1004; and United Nations, 1525
Nineteen Eighty-Four (Orwell), 1074
Nineteenth Amendment, 1427
Ninth Amendment, 1223; and privacy, 1187
Nirvana, 95, 112, 175-177, 809, 886, 1042-1043, 1559, 1611; Buddha on, 1560; and
mysticism, 988; and Western Paradise, 1361
Nixon, Richard M., 477, 672, 1307, 1552; and the arts, 89; and biochemical weapons, 135;
and campaign finance reform, 190; corruption of, 331, 1514; and Environmental Protection
Agency, 458; hypocrisy of, 702; on Miranda v. Arizona, 950; and Pentagon
Papers, 1106-1107; resignation of, 1189; and SALT treaties, 1308; and Title IX, 1488;
and Vietnam War, 1551; and Vietnam War, 675; and Watergate scandal, 1578
Nkrumah, Kwame, 272, 1084
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 129
Nobel, Alfred Bernhard, 1044
Nobel Peace Prizes, 1044-1046; Amnesty International, 55; Carter, Jimmy, 55; Dalai
Lama, 349-350; Dunant, Jean Henri, 760; Human Rights Watch, 689; International Red
Cross, 760; King, Martin Luther, Jr., 814; Mandela, Nelson, 893; Schweitzer, Albert, 1317;
Tutu, Desmond, 1516; Wiesel, Elie, 649, 1588
Nobel Prize in Economics, Becker, Gary, 419
Nobel Prize in Literature; Camus, Albert, 192; Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 747, 1396;
Tagore, Rabindranath, 1449
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; Crick, Francis, et al., 570; Moniz, Egas, 864;
Spemann, Hans, 259
"Noble savage," 1012
NOCM. See National Organization of Changing Men
Noddings, Nel, 284, 526
Noebel, David, 1398
Noel-Baker, Philip, 1666
Nolen, William, 510
NOM. See National Organization of Men
NOMAS. See National Organization of Men Against Sexism
Noncognitivism, 114, 264-265, 772, 816; and the good, 600; and is/ought
distinction, 771; and language, 824; and metaethics, 944
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the United Nations, 1526
Nonviolence, 1047-1048; and Ahimsā, 42; and civil disobedience, 248; in Civil
Rights movement, 253; and Gandhi, Mohandas K., 558; and Jainism, 781; and King,
Martin Luther, Jr., 814-815; and war, 1572. See also Violence
Norman, Richard, 48
Normative ethics, 1048-1049; and applied ethics, 943; and egotism, 426; and
liberalism, 846; and technology, 1460
Norris, Clarence, 1326
North, Oliver, 1398
North American Committee for Humanism, 691
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 590
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1050-1051; and Bosnia, 765; and
Kosovo, 817; and peacekeeping missions, 1103
Northcliffe, Lord, 910
Northern Ireland, 655, 1257, 1259
Norway and the Nobel Peace Prize, 1044-1046
"Not in my backyard," 1051-1053
Nott, Josiah, 1377
NOW. See National Organization for Women
Nowell-Smith, P. H., 962
Nozick, Robert, 950, 1053-1054; on consent, 315; and corporate compensation, 327;
on distributive justice, 393; and libertarianism, 848; on poverty, 1170
NSA. See National Security Agency
Nuclear arms race, 1054-1057; and environmental movement, 457; and Manhattan Project, 104,
894, 1320; and mutually assured destruction, 985; and SALT treaties, 1306-1308
Nuclear deterrence, 375
Nuclear energy, 1057-1058; Atomic Energy Commission, 105; and environmental movement, 457;
and pollution, 1152; and Union of Concerned Scientists, 1523
Nuclear fission, discovery of, 104
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 105, 1059, 1523
Nuclear testing and Greenpeace, 609
Nudity, 1123; in art, 88; in films, 974
Nunn, Sam, 1399
Nuremberg Code, 912; and medical research, 915
Nuremberg Laws, 650, 652
Nuremberg Trials, 490, 584, 1060-1062, 1183, 1288, 1550, 1573; and euthanasia, 735;
and Lemkin, Raphael, 839; and Nuremberg Code, 912, 915; and obedience, 1064
Nussbaum, Martha, 49, 1062-1063; and literature, 995
Nutrition, 139; and birth defects, 151; and children, 38; and genetically modified
foods, 575-577; and human rights, 687; inadequate, 696-697; and meat, 64

O
Oastler, Robert, 219
OAU. See Organization of African Unity
Obedience, 1064-1065; and Milgram experiment, 945; and power, 1065
Obesity, and children's television, 236
Objectivism, 101, 264-265, 599, 763-764, 1065-1067, 1236, 1336-1337; and God, 594;
and Hobbes, Thomas, 844; and morality, 1249; and Nagel, Thomas, 992; and selfishness, 1066;
vs. subjectivism, 264, 599, 763, 1535-1537; and value, 1535
Obligations, 1286-1288; and intuitionism, 767; and ought/can implication, 1076
"Obscenity," 1158
Occult; and the Kabbala, 803; and mysticism, 985; in song lyrics, 1398
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 438
O'Connor, Sandra Day, 91, 1600
O'Connor v. Donaldson (1975), 935
Odyssey (Homer), 158, 968
Office of Counsel to the President, 478
Office of Government Ethics, 477
Office of Technology Assessment, 1459
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 1679
Ofili, Chris, 91
Ogburn, William F., 1458
O'Hair, Madalyn Murray, 101
Ohio Adult Parole Authority v. Woodard (1998), 469
Oklahoma City federal building bombing, 357
Old Testament, 628-629, 972; Adam and Eve, 1114; and adultery, 22; on assassination, 98;
on business ethics, 181; and divine command theory, 396; divine justice in, 968;
on divorce, 397; the Exodus, 815; family values in, 517; on loyalty, 871; on lust, 875;
on mercy, 939; on the "messiah," 942; and Moses, 971-972; on murder, 1473; and Qurān, 1227;
on suicide, 1429; Ten Commandments, 101, 282, 368, 517, 529, 534, 629, 875, 877, 958,
972, 1048, 1373, 1472-1473; on theft, 1473; Torah, 1496-1497
Older Americans Act of 1965, 50
Older people; and advertising, 26; Gray Panthers, 605
Olson, Mancur, 1186
Olympic Games; and gambling, 125; security at, 1290
On Liberty (Mill), 545, 828, 831, 948, 1067-1069, 1187, 1390, 1537; on political
liberty, 1144; on tolerance, 1495
On War (Clausewitz), 1069
Oneida people, 1009, 1011
Onesicritus, 345
OnStar, 1461
Open government, 548; and public's right to know, 1222
Operation PUSH, 780-781
Operation Rescue, 1205
Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 895
Oppression, 1069-1071; and ecofeminism, 417
Optimism, 1118-1119
Oregon and physician-assisted suicide, 1432
Organ transplants, 8, 356, 926, 1071-1073, 1294; and brain death, 166-167
Organization of African Unity (OAU), 1084
Organizations and ethical codes, 471-472
Organized crime and sports, 125
Origen, 1561
Original Sin, doctrine of, 242, 422, 606, 731, 1076, 1182, 1367-1370, 1563; and collective guilt, 270
Orne, Martin T., 143
Ortega y Gasset, José, 1073-1074; on love, 869
Orthodoxy and political correctness, 1143
Orwell, George, 737, 1074-1075
Oscar II, 1044
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Osler, William, 914
Ossietzky, Carl von, 1666
O'Sullivan, John L., 897
Oswald, Lee Harvey, 99
Other, the, 369, 1075-1076; and alienation, 45; and generosity, 566; and Levinas,
Emmanuel, 845; Sartre, Jean-Paul, on, 121
Ottawa Treaty of 1999, 823
Ottoman Empire, 817; and Iraq, 769
Ought; and accountability, 16
Ought/can implication, 1076-1077
Outdoor Advertising Association of America, 25
Outsourcing, 1077-1078
Ovambo people, 33
Ovid, 1578
Owen, Robert, 1391
Ownership; and Nozick, Robert, 1054

P
PAC. See Pan-African Congress
Pacelle, Wayne, 690
Pacheco, Alex, 63, 1107
Pacific islanders and adultery, 22
Pacifism, 1079-1080; and conscientious objection, 313; and war, 1570, 1572
Page, David C., 1354
Pain, 1081-1082; and animal consciousness, 60; and electroshock therapy, 430-431;
and sentience, 1343; and suffering, 1081
Palestine, 776-779; and Crusades, 654; and Zionism, 1614
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 779
Paley, William, 47, 674, 1505
Palko v. Connecticut (1937), 132
Palmore, Erdman, 37
Pan-African Congress (PAC), 75
Pan-Africanism, 1082-1084
Panentheism, 1084-1086; and pantheism, 1084-1085
Pankhurst, Emmeline, 1427
Pantheism, 1086; and panentheism, 1084-1085
Papacy and Index Librorum Prohibitorum, 729
Paparazzi photographers, 1123
Papen, Franz van, 1061
Papp, Joseph, 89
Paradise; in Buddhism, 112, 1361; in Hinduism, 636; and Islam, 1228; in Zoroastrianism, 1615-1616
Paradoxes, 212, 1086-1088, 1383; Acton's aphorism, 1146; and deterrence, 375; and
existentialism, 497, 499; good and evil, 970; and hedonism, 631; and liars, 1512-1513;
and mysticism, 988; and nirvana, 1043; and pantheism, 1086; and rationality, 1086-1088;
and reason, 1086; and rule of God, 788; and self-deception, 1333; and the Shoah, 1589;
Socratic, 1132-1134, 1395; of tolerance, 1495; and weakness of will, 1471-1472
Parenting, 1089-1090; and child abuse, 217; and child psychology, 221; and child
support, 224-225; and confidentiality, 222; and incest, 723-724; and jealousy, 786;
and surrogate motherhood, 1440-1442
Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC), 1398
Paris Adult Theater I et al. v. Slaton (1973), 206
Parker, Mack Charles, 880
Parkinson's disease, 8, 569, 721
Parks, Rosa, 249, 1064
Parole of convicted prisoners, 1090-1091
Parsons, Frank, 15
Pascal, Blaise, 497, 1091-1093
Passion, 1093-1096; and rationality, 1093; and reason, 960
Passive resistance. See Nonviolence
Passivism and war, 947
Passy, Frédéric, 1046, 1665
Paternalism, 1097-1098; and drug testing, 410; and parenting, 1089
Patience; and asceticism, 95; and Buddhism, 155
Paton, William, 61
Patriarchy and gender bias, 564-565
Patriot Act of 2001, 1004, 1477
Patriotism, 1098; and fascism, 522; and loyalty oaths, 872-873; types, 959; and war, 1571
Patterson, Orlando, 1376-1377
Paul IV, Pope, 158
Paul, Alice, 463, 1427
Paul, apostle. See Paul of Tarsus
Paul of Tarsus, 95, 308, 323, 875, 1351, 1562; on family values, 517; on gluttony, 593;
on hope, 1562; on love, 1562; on sin, 1369; and situational ethics, 1373; on work, 1605
Pauling, Linus, 1666
PBS. See Public Broadcasting System
Peace Corps, 1099-1100
Peace studies, 1100-1102
Peacekeeping missions, 1102-1104; Bosnia, 163-164; Rwanda, 351
Peacemaking for Families, 1101
Pearson, Lester B., 1666
Peasants, 1376
Pedophilia and homosexuality, 865, 1296
Peirce, Charles Sanders, 763, 1104, 1512; on pragmatism, 1177-1178
Peloponnesian Wars, 946, 1324
Peltier, Leonard, 1105-1106
Pennsylvania, University of, 15
Pensions; military, 1545; and retirement funds, 1269-1270
Pentagon Papers, 1106-1107; and public's right to know, 1222
Pentecostalism, 510
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), 63, 456, 924, 1107-1108, 1680; advertising, 27
Pequot people, 1009-1010
Percival, Thomas, 138, 912, 914
Peres, Shimon, 1045, 1668
Perfectionism, 1109-1110, 1466
Pericles, 544
Périer, Jacqueline, 1091
Perjury, 1110
Permanent International Peace Bureau, 1665
Permanent Court of Arbitration, 752
Permissible acts, 1111-1112
Perón, Juan, 389
Perot, H. Ross, 990
Perry, R. B., 1112
Persian Empire, 1615
Persian Gulf War; chemical weapons, 215; and mercenary soldiers, 938
Personal injury attorneys, 1113
Personal relationships, 1113-1117
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, 449
Personality; and behaviorism, 120; and character, 208
Personhood; and abortion, 5-6; and electronic surveillance, 430
Perspectivism, 10
Pessimism, 1118-1119; and Schopenhauer, Arthur, 1316
Pesticides, 455, 503, 733, 759; and Environmental Protection Agency, 458; Zyklon B, 651
PETA. See People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
Pétain, Henri-Philippe, 1507-1508
Petronius, 592
Pharmaceutical industry; advertising, 27; and bioethics, 141
Phenomenology, 1425
Phenomenology of Spirit (Hegel), 44, 708, 1120-1121
Philby, Kim, 1507
Philip the Chancellor, 308
Phillips, Wendell, 1379
Philo of Alexandria, 1122
Philosophes, 1163-1166, 1277; Montesquieu, 952
Philosophy and ethics, 845
Philosophy Documentation Center, 1680
Phoenix Park murders, 100
Photojournalism, 1122-1123
Physician-patient relationship, 139, 297, 912, 1117, 1124-1126; and genetic
testing, 574, 1125; and paternalism, 1098
Physicians. See Medical ethics
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, 1680
Physiology and emotions, 1093
Piaget, Jean, 954
Piety, 1254, 1535; and Christianity, 241; filial, 283, 304, 512; and loyalty, 871;
Plato on, 1132; Socrates on, 851, 1254, 1256
Pilgrim's Progress (Bunyan), 1230
Pinchot, Gifford, 138, 316, 455-456
Pinel, Philippe, 933
Pire, Georges, 1666
Pius X, Pope, 1167
Pius XII, Pope, 484, 1073, 1283, 1373
Plagiarism, 1126-1129; and intellectual property, 748; and research, 1319
Plague, 134-135, 923, 1014
Planned Parenthood, 610, 1187
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992), 1293
Plato, 1130-1135; on abortion, 4, 1205; Apology, 78; on art, 87; and Augustine,
Saint, 108; on authority, 313; on censorship, 203; on consent and coercion, 315;
on elitism, 432-433; on emotion, 284; and the Enlightenment, 444; on equality, 465;
on excellence, 495; on families, 514; on friendship, 552; on glossolalia, 510; and God, 594;
on the good, 599; and Homer, 158; on idealism, 707; on incommensurability, 729; on infanticide, 735;
on justice, 801; on marriage, 1114; on morality, 1111; ontology of, 474; on piety, 1132;
on property, 1603-1604; on prudence, 1214; on public interest, 1221; on reason, 1131-1133;
on religion, 1256; Republic, 276, 322, 333, 424, 444, 474, 495, 559, 635, 708, 801-802,
967-968, 1114, 1130-1134, 1173, 1214, 1256, 1262-1263, 1331, 1334, 1389, 1560, 1603;
on self-interest, 1334; on sin, 1367; on social justice, 1389; and Socrates, 475, 1130-1132;
and Sophists, 1401; on suicide assistance, 1430; on tragedy, 1503; on work, 1602-1603
Platonic ethics, 1132-1135; on idealism, 707; and Phenomenology of
Spirit
(Hegel), 1120
"Playing god," 1136; and medical research, 926; and surrogate motherhood, 1442
Pleasure; and Cyrenaics, 347; and existentialism, 498; and hedonism, 630-631; and sentience, 1343
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), 170, 391, 798, 1136-1137, 1329, 1437
PLO. See Palestine Liberation Organization
Plumwood, Val, 417
Pluralism, 10, 1137-1138; and ecofeminism, 418; and liberal lifestyles, 859; and multiculturalism, 982
Plutarch and role models, 1295
Plymouth Colony, 1545
PMRC. See Parents Music Resource Center
Podhoretz, Norman, 1552
Pogroms, 582, 1138-1139, 1589, 1614
Pol Pot, 382
Police brutality, 1139-1142
Polio, eradication of, 1606
Political action committees, 190
Political advertising, 26
Political contributions and ethical codes, 471
Political correctness, 1142-1143; and multiculturalism, 981-982
Political ethics, Nozick, Robert, 1053
Political liberty, 1144-1145; and Supreme Court, U.S., 1436
Political morality, 386
Political realism, 1145-1146
Politics, 1146-1150; and accountability, 16; campaign finance reform, 189-190; conservatism, 316-317;
and corruption, 1146; Cynics on, 346; and democracy, 365; and "dirty hands," 386;
and feminist ethics, 527; libertarianism, 847-848; and Marxism, 905; and nationalism, 1005-1008;
progressivism, 1204; and realpolitik, 1247; and televangelists, 1468
Politics (Aristotle), 84, 322, 1603
Poll taxes, 391, 1150-1151
Pollution, 1151-1152; permits, 1153; and sustainability of resources, 1444; and technology, 1458
Polygamy, 581, 900, 1253; in Africa, 35; among Eskimos, 670; and Islam, 773, 979; in Turkey, 101
Polygraph tests, 1218
Pompanazzi, Pietro, 14
Poole, Ross, 102
Poona Pact, 1154-1155
Popeil, Ron, 736
Popes; Eugenia IV, 1231; Gregory VII, 654; Innocent III, 654, 887-888; John Paul II, 1605;
Leo IV, 654; Leo IX, 654; Leo X, 14; Leo XIII, 1433; Nicholas V, 1231; Paul IV, 158;
Pius X, 1167; Pius XII, 484, 1073, 1283, 1373
Popper, Karl, 600, 1318
Population Connection, 1155, 1680
Population control, 1155-1157; and environmental movement, 457; and future generations, 555;
and genetic engineering, 572; and immigration, 715-717; Malthus, Thomas, on, 891;
and sterilization, 1419
Population growth and lifeboat ethics, 858
Pornography, 89, 161-162, 204, 206, 292, 1158-1161, 1546, 1558; and motion picture
ratings systems, 974; participatory, 1558; vs. prostitution, 1211; and rape, 1240, 1242,
1351-1352; and sexual predators, 760; on World Wide Web, 292
Porter, Cole, 1397
Porter, Ray, 606
Positivism; and Comte, Auguste, 294; and Hart, H. L. A., 620-621; and meaning of life, 850
Post, Emily, 481
Post-Enlightenment ethics, 1162-1166
Postman, Neil, 1460
Postmodernism, 859, 1167-1168, 1253; and altruism, 49; and art, 207; and critical
theory, 339-340; and fact/value distinction, 505; and skepticism, 1167-1168
Poststructuralism, 359
Potlatch, 581
Potsdam Conference, 1169
Pound, Ezra, 1507
Poverty, 727, 1169-1172; and charity, 211; and children, 225; and developing world, 375-376
Powderly, Terence, 816
Power, 1172-1176; and abuse, 12-13; abuses of, 487; and corruption, 1146; and
dictatorship, 381-382; Foucault, Michel, on, 532; and language, 1143; Machiavelli,
Niccolň, on, 883-884; Nietzsche, Friedrich, on, 1039; and obedience, 1065; and oppression,
1069-1070; and realpolitik, 1246; and sexual abuse, 1349
Practical ethics and Cyrenaics, 347
Practical reason, 1177
Pragmatism, 1177-1179; and Peirce, Charles Sanders, 1104; and pluralism, 1138
Predestination, 423, 488, 523, 1163, 1370, 1581; and free will, 493; and vice, 1547
Pregnancy, 1353; and abortion, 251, 1188, 1190, 1284; and birth control, 150; and
birth defects, 151-153; and cesarean sections, 208; and in vitro fertilization, 720-722;
and promiscuity, 1206-1207, 1285; and surrogate motherhood, 1442-1443
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, 440
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, 574
Prejudice and bigotry, 128
Prejudice Institute, 1680
Premarital sex, 1115, 1179-1180
Prenuptial agreements, 1287
Presbyterianism, 15, 1370
Prescriptivism, 1181; universal, 619
President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical
and Behavioral Research (1983), 139, 856, 1136
President's Council on Bioethics, 1459, 1681
Presley, Elvis, 1447
Presumption of innocence; and erroneous convictions, 469
Price fixing, 1181
Pride, 695, 1038, 1182-1183, 1546; and ethnocentrism, 480; and fear, 524;
vs. humility, 694; and perfectionism, 1109; racial, 394; and sin, 108, 694
Priestley, Joseph, 1592
Prince, 1398
Prince, The (Machiavelli), 340, 386, 883-884, 1174
Principle of generic consistency, 586
Principles of Medical Ethics (AMA), 138, 1183-1184
Principles of Medical Ethics with Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry, 1184-1185
Prisoners, parole of, 1090
Prisoner's dilemma, 1185-1186
Prisons; Attica revolt, 337; Foucault, Michel, on, 531; Soviet gulags, 295-296,
614-615, 1397, 1498; and three-strikes laws, 1485
Privacy, 1187-1188, 1442; and AIDS, 20; and biometrics, 144-146; and computer
databases, 290; and computer misuse, 291; and computer technology, 293; and confidentiality, 297-298;
and drug testing, 410-411; and electronic surveillance, 430; and families, 1089; and
genetic engineering, 571; and genetic testing, 573; and medical ethics, 916; and plagiarism, 1129;
and prostitution, 1213; and Roe v. Wade, 1292-1293; and sex therapy, 1345;
and Supreme Court, U.S., 1438
Privacy Act of 1975, 737
Private vs. public morality, 1188-1189; Machiavelli, Niccolň, on, 883
Privatization and outsourcing, 1078
Procedural rights, 251
Process philosophy, 125
Process theology, 621
Pro-choice movement, 1190-1192; and abortion, 4; and Roe v. Wade, 1294
Product safety and liability, 184, 1192-1195
Professional athlete incomes, 1195-1198
Professional ethics, 1198-1202; military, 946-947; and self-regulation, 1341
Profiling, 799, 1477; and genetic engineering, 571
Profit economy, 1203; and capitalism, 198; and free enterprise, 537
Profit taking, 1203-1204
Progressivism, 1204
Prohibition and temperance, 1469-1470
Prohibition Party, 1469, 1471
Project Camelot, 68
Pro-life movement, 1204-1206; and abortion, 4; and right to life, 1284-1285; and
Roe v. Wade, 1293
Promiscuity, 1206-1207
Promises, 1208-1209; and greatest good principle, 1209; and Kant's categorical
imperative, 1208; and rights and obligations, 1287
Promotional Products Association International, 25
Propaganda, 765; fascist, 522, 1032; Nazi, 582, 652, 1061; and Plato, 1135, 1256;
and spies, 470; and treason, 1507
Property, 1209-1211; and anarchy, 56
Proportionality and just war theory, 800
Proposition 209 (California), 30
Prostitution, 1211-1213; and Agreement for the Suppression of White Slave Traffic, 40
Protagoras, 315, 691, 1134, 1401, 1424
Protagoras (Plato), 707, 1130, 1133, 1135
Protestant Reformation. See Reformation
Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph, 56
Prudence, 1214-1215
Psychoanalysis, 549-551
Psychological behaviorism, 119-121
Psychological disorders and abuse, 13
Psychology, 1215-1219; and behaviorism, 118; children, 221-222; group therapy, 611;
and human nature, 679-682; and institutionalization of patients, 741-742; and intelligence
testing, 749; and mental illness, 931-935; and motivation, 976; and optimism and
pessimism, 1118-1119; and pain, 1081; and perfectionism, 1109; and Principles of
Medical Ethics
, 1184; and Soviet psychiatry, 1405; and will, 1579
Psychopharmacology, 1219-1221
Psychosurgery, 864-865, 935
Psychotherapy, 1215; and confidentiality, 297; and psychopharmacology, 1220
Public Broadcasting System (PBS), 235
Public interest, 1221-1222
Public officials; and photojournalists, 1123
Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research, 1681
Public's right to know, 1222; and Freedom of Information Act, 548; and
genetically modified foods, 577
Pudd'nhead Wilson (Twain), 146
Pufendorf, Samuel von, 1019
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, 1668
Pulitzer, Joseph, 910
Punishment, 1223-1224; and abuse, 13; death penalty, 193-196; and deterrence, 374;
three-strikes laws, 1485. See also Criminal punishment
Punjab, 1364, 1366
Pure Being, 113
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907, 1221
Purgatory, 968
Puritans and the arts, 89
Pybus, Elizabeth, 503, 566
Pythagoras, 1134

Q
Qaeda, al-, 1004, 1474, 1477; and holy war, 657; and Nine-Eleven, 656
Qi, 304, 929, 1612
Qin Dynasty, 303, 381
Qin Shi Huangdi, 381
Quidde, Ludwig, 1665
Quinlan, Karen Ann, 484, 1225, 1282
Quisling, Vidkun, 1507
"Quotas"; and affirmative action, 29; and Title IX, 1489
Qurān, 282, 588, 616, 772-773, 1226-1227, 1360, 1560; on adultery, 22; on children's
rights, 233; and Ghazālī, al-, 587; and Hebrew Bible, 628; on Jews, 70;
on morality, 775; and Muhammad, 979; on punishment, 1223; and Sunnīs, 1434; on usury, 774
Qutb, Sayyid, 656

R
Rabbinic law, 790, 1368-1369
Rībiah al-Adawīyah, 1228, 1428
Rabin, Yitzhak, 1045, 1668
Race; and capital punishment, 196; and diversity, 394; and rape, 1243; and slavery, 1377
Rachels, James, 1278
Racial classification, 30
Racial minorities and advertising, 25
Racial prejudice, 1228-1230
Racial profiling, 1004; and homeland defense, 657; and national security, 1004
Racialism, 394
Racism, 1230-1234; and affirmative action, 29; apartheid, 74-75; and bigotry, 128;
and discrimination, 390; and integration, 743-745; and Ku Klux Klan, 819-820; and oppression, 1070;
and redlining, 1250; and reparations, 1261; and slavery, 1377; and sterilization, 1418
Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, 1543
Radice, Anne-Imelda, 89
Radio and evangelicalism, 1467
Raeder, Erich, 1061
Rain forests, 1235-1236, 1544; clear-cutting of, 450
Rainbow Warrior, 609
Ramanuja, 1542
Ramos-Horta, José, 1668
Ramsey, Paul, 915
Rand, Ayn, 122, 1236-1237; and atheism, 101; and ethical egoism, 315, 1280; on human nature, 680;
and liberalism, 847; and objectivism, 101, 1065-1066, 1236, 1336-1337; on objectivism, 1065-1066
Randi, James, 510-511
Randolph, A. Philip, 252, 999
Rape, 13, 1237-1241; and abortion, 5; and lynching, 879; and political domination, 1242-1243;
in wartime, 1573
Rath, Louis, 1539
Rationality, 1247-1248; Aristotle on, 85; Berdyayev, Nikolay, on, 124; in Buddhism, 175;
Foucault, Michel, on, 1175; and hedonism, 630, 970; and human behavior, 1326; and
human nature, 1340; and humanism, 691; Hume, David, on, 449; and moral rightness, 424;
and morality, 1248; and paradoxes, 1086-1088; and passion, 1093; and prisoner's
dilemma, 1185; and religion, 1327; and self-consciousness, 850; and will, 1578.
See also Irrationality
Rauschenbusch, Walter, 814
Rawls, John, 182, 1244; and campaign finance reform, 191; on consent, 315; and corporate
compensation, 327; and distributive justice, 393, 949; on impartiality, 720; on utilitarianism, 1532;
on justice, 368; and Kantian ethics, 807; and Nozick, Robert, 1054; on personal
relationships, 1115; on self-respect, 1342; Theory of Justice, A, 368, 495, 508, 1244, 1342, 1479, 1584
Raz, Joseph, 621
Razi, al-, 1244
Read, Herbert, 57
Reagan, Nancy, 570, 1415
Reagan, Ronald, 478, 736, 1189, 1307-1308; vs. abortion, 1293; alleged greed of, 606;
Alzheimer's disease of, 570; and the arts, 89; and Bennett, William J., 123; and censorship, 159;
and cigarette advertising, 25; and Civil Liberties Act, 77; and income tax, 1453; and
"Irangate," 672; on Miranda v. Arizona, 950; and Peace Corps, 1100; on SALT, 1308;
and women's rights, 1600
Reality television, 1244-1246
Realpolitik, 765, 1189, 1246-1247; and nationalism, 1007-1008
Reason, 85, 385, 465, 521, 850, 1247-1249; in animals, 59, 85, 343, 503, 966;
Aristotle on, 86, 596, 958, 976, 1466; and artificial intelligence, 93; and categorical imperative, 804;
and character, 1433; Cicero on, 245, 1017; and consistency, 318; and emotion, 284, 437, 1093;
and the Enlightenment, 444-446, 1163-1164; Epictetus on, 459; and existentialism, 496, 498;
and faith, 1519; Freud, Sigmund, on, 551; and gender, 565, 1596-1597; Grotius, Hugo, on, 610;
Hobbes, Thomas, on, 646; and human nature, 681; Hume, David, on, 437, 449, 681, 693, 1536;
Kant, Immanuel, on, 532, 804, 878, 965; and knowledge, 1017, 1041; and language, 340;
and law, 168, 1017, 1433; Locke, John, on, 1516; and lust, 875, 1037; and meaning of life, 852;
and mercy, 940; and moral law, 707; and morality, 551, 958-960, 965, 969, 1121, 1278, 1421;
and natural law, 756, 1022, 1414, 1483; and nihilism, 1041; and paradoxes, 1086; and
passion, 960, 1093; Plato on, 746, 1131-1133; practical, 1177; and religion, 445-446; and
revelation, 959, 1497; and social contract theory, 1385-1387; and soul, 746; and state of nature, 538;
Thomas Aquinas on, 1433; Torah on, 116; and transcendentalism, 1505; Unamuno y Jugo, Miguel de,
on, 1519; and utopia, 1534; and will, 1590. See also Sentience
Recidivism of prisoners, 1090
Reciprocity and rights and obligations, 1286
Reclamation Act of 1902, 316
Reconciliation, 1249-1250
Reconstruction, 250; aftermath of, 1083, 1232; end of, 391; and Ku Klux Klan, 819; and
race, 412; and segregation, 1329; and Washington, Booker T., 1576
Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 1398-1399; and Internet piracy, 762
Red Army, 842, 1411-1412
Red Cross. See International Red Cross
Redlining, 1250
Reflex arc concept (Dewey), 378
Reformation; and academic freedom, 14; and asceticism, 95; and assassination, 99; and
class struggle, 255; and communism, 276; and Luther, Martin, 876; and nationalism, 1006
Refugees, 1250-1252; and citizenship, 246; and immigration, 715; Palestinian, 779
Regan, Tom, 64-65, 342, 1544; on animal rights, 61, 64, 66, 966
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), 30
Regina v. Hicklin (1868), 206, 1158
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 54, 387
Rehnquist, William, 469
Reincarnation; and Hindu caste, 200
Relativism, 10, 1252-1253; and absolutism, 10-11; and duty, 414; and fact/value distinction, 506;
and human nature, 681; and permissible acts, 1111; and pluralism, 1137; and skepticism, 1252.
See also Cultural relativism; Ethical relativism
Religion, 1254-1258; and abortion, 5, 1294; and academic freedom, 14; asceticism, 94-95;
and atheism, 101; Buddhism, 176-177; Christianity, 241-242; church-state separation, 243-244;
and cloning, 261; and conservatism, 317; and corruption, 331; Deism, 364; and the
Enlightenment, 445-446, 1163; and equality, 465; ethical monotheism, 473; and evil, 487-490;
faith healers, 509-510; and God, 593-594; and Hartshorne, Charles, 621; Hinduism, 636-637;
and holy war, 653-656; and homosexuality, 666; and irrationality, 1248; and Israeli-Palestinian
conflict, 776-779; Islam, 772-775; Jainism, 781; Judaism, 789-790; and liberty, 541;
and loyalty oaths, 873; Manichaeanism, 895-896; messianism, 942; and morality, 968; and
mysticism, 985-989; panentheism, 1084-1085; pantheism, 1086; and premarital sex, 1179;
and prostitution, 1212; and racism, 1231; and rationality, 1327; and reason, 445-446;
and revelation, 1271-1272; and sacrifice, 1259; Scientology, 1322; and secularism, 1326-1327;
Shintoism, 1361-1362; Sikhism, 1364-1366; televangelists, 1467-1468; and tolerance, 1495;
and violence, 1258-1259; Zoroastrianism, 1615-1617
Religious education and godparents, 595
Remington, Frederic, 910
Ren, 304, 306, 928
Renault, Louis, 1665
Reparations, 1260-1262; and apartheid, 1401; and collective guilt, 269; and developing
world, 376; and the Holocaust, 71; and Japanese American internment, 785; and slavery, 1377;
and World War II, 1169
Reproductive rights; and surrogate motherhood, 1440-1442
Republic (Plato), 276, 322, 333, 474, 495, 559, 635, 708, 801-802, 967, 1114, 1130-1134,
1173, 1214, 1256, 1262-1263, 1331, 1389, 1560, 1603; on egoism, 424; and the Enlightenment, 444;
on idealism, 708; on justice, 801; on self-interest, 1334; on underworld, 968
Republican Party and conservatism, 317
Research; and academic freedom, 14-15; on animals, 60-61; anthropological, 67-68;
industrial, 732; medical, 922-927, 1415-1417; in Nazi Germany, 1027-1029; and
technology, 1456-1463; on weapons, 1029, 1579-1580
Resources; conservation of, 316; and deforestation, 362-363; and distributive justice, 392-393
Responsibility, 1264-1268; Aristotle on, 86; and art, 88; and coercion, 264; and
determinism, 1264-1266; and duty, 1389-1390; and existentialism, 1267; and freedom, 1264;
and godparents, 595; moral, 962-963; and product safety, 1194; and social justice, 1389-1390;
and surrogate motherhood, 1442. See also Accountability
Restoration of Religious Freedom Act of 1993, 874
Restorative justice and victims' rights, 1548
Resumés, 1268-1269
Retirement funds, 1269-1270
Retribution and criminal punishment, 337
Retributive justice; and capital punishment, 194-195; and victims' rights, 1548
Revelation, 1271-1272; and reason, 1497
Revenge, 1273-1274; and forgiveness, 1273; and hate, 623, 1039; and punishment, 1223
Reverse discrimination; and affirmative action, 29; and Title IX, 1489
Reverse racism, 1274-1275
Revisionist history; Armenian genocide, 585
Revivalism, 2; in Africa, 36; and faith healers, 510; Great Awakening, 423
Revolution, 1275-1277; and conservatism, 317; and Socialism, 1392
Rhodesia, 938, 1310
RIAA. See Recording Industry Association of America
Ribbentrop, Joachim von, 1061
Richard, M. P., 1393
Richardson, Samuel, 730
Riefenstahl, Leni, 652
Riggs, Marlon, 89
Right, the, and political correctness, 1142
Right and wrong, 10, 460-462, 846, 1168, 1278-1281; in African ethics, 33; in Buddhism, 178;
and compromise, 286; and conscience, 310; and Cyrenaics, 347; and "dirty hands," 386;
and either/or dichotomy, 426; and intuitionism, 767; in metaethics, 943; and morality, 957-960;
and relativism, 1252; and religion, 1254-1255; and subjectivism, 1278; and teleology, 1466;
and utilitarianism, 1531
Right to die, 355, 857, 1282-1283; and suicide, 1428-1429
Right to know. See Public's right to know
Right to life, 857, 1284-1285; and euthanasia, 483-484; and fetal research, 925
Rights, 1286-1288; and business ethics, 182; and citizenship, 247; and corruption, 331
Riis, Jacob, 513
Rinzai Zen, 402, 1611
Robb, Carol, 527
Robbie CX30, 1291
Roberts, Oral, 510, 1468
Robertson, Pat, 89, 510, 1467
Robinson, Jackie, 1000
Robinson-Gaither, Andrew, 1261
Robinson-Patman Act of 1936, 73, 899
Robotics, 1289-1292
Rock and roll music, 1397-1400
Rock Out Censorship, 1400
Rockefeller, John D., Sr., 1388
Rodriguez, Alex, 1196
"Roe, Jane." See McCorvey, Norma
Roe v. Wade (1973), 4, 798, 1190, 1285, 1292-1294, 1438; and privacy, 1188
Rogers, Carl, 118; on human nature, 680
Rogers v. Okin (1979), 935
Role models, 1294-1296; and promiscuity, 1206
Roman Catholic Church; and abortion, 4, 1191, 1204, 1294; and absolutism, 10; and
academic freedom, 14; and censorship, 203; and codes of chivalry, 237-238; and euthanasia, 484,
1283; family law, 398; and gambling, 867; and gay marriage, 563; on in vitro fertilization, 720;
Index librorum prohibitorum, 203, 729; and Ku Klux Klan, 128, 819-820; and
loyalty oaths, 872; and marriage, 901; and Summa Theologica (Thomas Aquinas), 1432
Roman Catholic priests scandal, 1296-1297
Roman Empire; authority in, 544; famines, 520; and Marcus Aurelius, 898
Roman law, 544; and abortion, 4; Cicero on, 1021; and divorce, 397; and free speech, 544;
and marriage, 901; and slavery, 1376
Roman Republic, 245, 276, 365; citizenship in, 246; corruption in, 99; free speech in, 544
Rome Statute of 2003, 752
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1520-1521; and atom bomb, 895; on discrimination, 467; on fascism, 522;
and Japanese American internment, 296, 783; and New Deal, 89; New Deal programs, 535,
658, 882, 949, 1584; and stock market, 1269
Roosevelt, Theodore, 138, 328, 952, 1221; and antitrust legislation, 73; on conservation, 316;
and environmental movement, 455; and Geneva Conventions, 580; Nobel Peace Prize, 1665;
and progressivism, 1204; and Washington, Booker T., 1576
Root, Elihu, 1665
Rorty, Amélie, 1137-1138
Rorty, Richard, 1138, 1298; on human nature, 679
Rose, Pete, 126
Rosenberg, Ethel, 1507
Rosenberg, Julius, 1507
Rosenberg, Alfred, 1061
Ross, David, on is/ought distinction, 772
Ross, Edward A., 15
Ross, William D., 961; and intuitionism, 368, 1278
Rotblat, Joseph, 1668
Roth v. United States (1957), 159, 206, 1159
Rothermere, Lord, 910
Roubiczek, Paul, 101
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 74, 445, 465, 1298-1299; on alienation, 44, 1386; and anti-Semitism, 70;
on authenticity, 110; on evil, 1022; on government, 1165; on human goodness, 891;
on human nature, 680; and Nussbaum, Martha, 1062; on social contract, 1385-1387, 1390;
on sovereignty, 1404; on state of nature, 1414, 1602-1604
Rousset, David, 651
Royal Air Force, 404
Royce, Josiah, 707, 873, 1300; on loyalty, 872
RU-486, 6, 8
Ruby, Jack, 99
Ruddick, Sara, 526, 694; on trustworthiness, 1510
Ruether, Rosemary, 417
Rūmī, Jalāl al-Dīn, 1300-1301
Rummel, Rudolph, 583
Rupke, Nicolaas, 60
Rush, Benjamin, 914, 932
Rushdie, Salman, 160, 204
Russell, Bertrand, 708, 1301-1302, 1318; on truth, 1512
Russia; abortion in, 5; anti-Semitism in, 70; biochemical weapons, 135; environmental
movement in, 457; famines, 697; nihilism in, 1041; pogroms in, 582, 1138, 1614;
scorched-earth tactics in, 1323; suffrage in, 1427
Russian literature, 1324; Dostoevski, Fyodor, 403, 605, 852, 1041, 1326; Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 1396
Russian Revolution, 358, 1276-1277; and communism, 277; satire of, 1074
Russo, Anthony, Jr., 1106-1107
Ruth, Babe, 1195
Rwanda, 351, 583, 585, 1103, 1228, 1302-1304, 1573; rape, 1243; refugees, 696; religion, 33;
and United Nations, 1526

S
Sacrifice, 168, 300, 396, 604-605; and atonement, 1368; and bushido, 179-180;
in Hinduism, 42; Rand, Ayn, on, 1236; and religion, 1259; and sincerity, 311; and the
Upanisads, 1530. See also Self-sacrifice
Sacrifice, animal, 96, 972, 998, 1258
Sacrifice, human, 594, 628, 812, 1227, 1248, 1258
Sadat, Anwar, 656; Nobel Peace Prize, 1667
Sade, Marquis de, 340
Safety and cell phones, 202
Said, Nuri al-, 770
Saint-Simon, Claude, 730, 1391
Sankara, 1531, 1542
Sākyamuni, 154, 401
Sales ethics, 1305-1306
SALT treaties, 1306-1308, 1523
Samaritan, Good, 602, 907, 939; and supererogation, 1435
Samurai warriors, 180-181, 1535
Sanāī, 1301, 1428
Sánchez, Oscar Arias, 1667
Sanctions, 1309-1310; and South Africa, 893
Sand Creek Massacre National Study Site Act of 1998, 1260
Sanger, Margaret, 150
Sakara, 1311-1312
Santayana, George, 1312-1313
Sanz del Rio, Julian, 1085
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, 330, 471, 741
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 102, 604, 870, 1042, 1173, 1248, 1288, 1313-1314, 1425, 1537;
on authenticity, 110; on bad faith, 115; and Beauvoir, Simon de, 116, 1326; Being and
Nothingness
, 121; and existentialism, 497-498; on God, 490; on human nature, 679;
on meaning of life, 852; on personal relationships, 1116
Satō, Eisaku, 1667
Satan, 446, 489, 601, 1226; and mental illness, 933
Satyagraha, 96, 249, 559, 1154
Sauckel, Fritz, 1061
Saudi Arabia and capital punishment, 196
Saussure, Ferdinand, 359
Scaife, Richard Mellon, 18
Scalia, Antonin, 562, 796
Scandals, 671-672, 828, 1189, 1446-1447; congressional, 307, 672, 702, 1514; corporate, 328-330,
471-472, 1189, 1421; honor code, 676; insider trading, 29, 186, 1270; presidential, 331,
477, 672, 702, 792, 1189, 1514, 1578; religious, 510, 702, 1296-1297, 1468; sports, 125
Scapegoats, 58, 508, 582, 1259, 1368, 1410; and frustration-aggression theory of genocide, 582
Schacht, Hjalmar, 1061
Schachter, Stanley, 1095
Schenck v. United States (1919), 546
Schindler, Oskar, 1315-1316
Schirach, Baldur von, 1061
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 488
Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., 982; on realpolitik, 1189
Scholastic Aptitude Test, 270
Scholasticism, 48, 475, 553, 599, 705, 1163, 1408; and assassination, 98; on God, 1435;
and Hobbes, Thomas, 646; and Locke, John, 865; and Spinoza, Baruch, 1408
Schönerer, Georg von, 644
School prayer, 1437
Schools; dress codes, 405-406; racial segregation, 170-171
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 47, 976, 1316, 1510; on cruelty, 340; on evil, 1587; on tragedy, 1503
Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 571
Schweitzer, Albert, 982, 1317; Nobel Peace Prize, 1046, 1666
Science, 1317-1321; biotechnology, 147-148; and the Enlightenment, 445; and fraud, 1319;
in Nazi Germany, 1027-1029; robotics, 1289-1291; and technology, 1456-1463
Scientific ethics, and Union of Concerned Scientists, 1523
Scientology, 1322-1323
SCLC. See Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Scopes, John T., 51
Scorched-earth policies, 520, 1323-1324
Scott, Dred, 1325
Scott v. Sandford (1857), 1325
Scottsboro case, 1325-1326
Scotus, John Duns, 113
Scythians, 1323
Sea Shepherds, 456
Searle, John, 93
SEC. See Securities and Exchange Commission
Second Amendment, 130, 132, 251, 314
Second Sex, The (Beauvoir), 116, 1326, 1352; on dignity, 384; on love, 869
Secrecy and espionage, 470
Secular humanism. See Humanism
Secularism, 1326-1328
Securities Act of 1933, 330
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 739, 740, 1270
Sedition, 1328
Sedition Act of 1798, 1328-1329
Sedition Act of 1918, 872
Segregation, 1329-1331; apartheid, 74-75; Brown v. Board of Education, 170-171;
and Plessy v. Ferguson, 1136; and redlining, 1250
Selective Service Act of 1917, 314
Self, the; and alienation, 45; and ecofeminism, 417
Self-control, 1331-1332; and behavior modification, 118; and desire, 372; and moral
development, 1332; and responsibility, 1264; and temperance, 1561
Self-deception, 1333-1334
Self-discipline and asceticism, 94
Self-fulfillment, Gewirth, Alan, on, 587
Self-identity; and gangs, 560; and nationalism, 1005
Self-interest, 1334-1335; and egoism, 424, 1335; and gangs, 559; and liberalism, 846;
and selfishness, 1336; and utilitarianism, 1335
Selfishness, 1336-1337; and altruism, 46; and charity, 211; vs. common good, 274; and
egotism, 425; and liberalism, 847; and Lincoln, Abraham, 1279; and narcissism, 995; and
objectivism, 1066; and self-interest, 1336
Self-love, 1337-1339; and altruism, 48; and narcissism, 995
Self-ownership and distributive justice, 393
Self-preservation, 1339-1340
Self-regulation, 1341
Self-respect, 1341-1342
Self-righteousness, 1343; and hypocrisy, 1343
Self-sacrifice, 243, 305, 424, 493, 682, 788; and civic virtue, 1344; and collectivism, 1147;
and freedom, 541; and love, 870; and mean/ends distinction, 909
Selig, Bud, 1383
Seminole people, 1010
Sen, Amartya, 377
Senate Select Committee on Ethics, 306
Seneca and suicide assistance, 1430
Seneca Falls Convention, 1413, 1426, 1599
Sentencing, 1274; "crimes of passion," 58; homicide, 661; and mental illness, 935;
and three-strikes laws, 1485
Sentience, 1343-1344; animal consciousness, 59; and animal rights, 64;
and exploitation, 503; and robotics, 1291
Separate but equal doctrine, 1437; and Plessy v. Ferguson, 1136
September 11, 2001, attacks. See Nine-Eleven
Sepúlveda, Juan Gines de, 1012
Serbs, 163, 480; in Bosnia, 163-164; and concentration camps, 296; in Kosovo, 164, 817-818
Sermon on the Mount, 241-242, 558, 1079
Serrano, Andres, 89, 207
Service to others, 1344
Sesame Street, 235-236
"Seven deadly sins," 593, 875, 1182, 1546; envy, 458; gluttony, 592; greed, 606;
lust, 875; sloth, 831
Seveners (Ismāītlites), 1361
Sex Pistols, 1398
Sex therapy, 1345-1346
Sexism, 1347-1348; and affirmative action, 29; and sexual stereotypes, 1351-1352; and Title IX, 1488
Sextus Empiricus, 1374
Sexual abuse, 13, 1348-1350; rape, 1237-1241; Roman Catholic priests scandal, 673, 702, 1296-1297
Sexual harassment, 1348-1350, 1381; and Clinton, Bill, 258; in the workplace, 440
Sexuality and sexual ethics, 1350-1351, 1353-1356, 1358; and Islam, 774; and lust, 875;
premarital, 1179-1180; and promiscuity, 1206-1207; and prostitution, 1211-1213
Sexually transmitted diseases, 1357-1359; and promiscuity, 1207
Seyss-Inquart, Arthur, 1061
Shack, Dove, 1399
Shaftesbury, third earl of, 343, 505, 825, 1359; on altruism, 47; and Locke, John, 866;
on moral philosophy, 964; on moral sense, 964
Shakespeare, William, 497, 1587; on assassination, 99; censorship of, 160; on love, 1115; on mercy, 939
Shame, 612-613; and collective guilt, 270; and Shintoism, 1362
Sharecropping, 1380
Sharīa, 1360; and environmental movement, 456
Sharon, Ariel, 779
Sharp, Granville, 1378
Sharpeville massacre, 892
Sharswood, George, 837
SHaS. See Mishnah
Shaw, George Bernard, 342-343
Sher, George, 942
Sherman, William Tecumseh, 1324
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, 73, 1181
Shiism, 1361; and Alī ibn Abī Tālib, 43; and Husayn, 43, 698; and Sunnīism, 43
Shiites, 769-770
Shin Buddhism, 177
Shinran, 1361
Shintoism, 1361-1363; and bushido, 179-180
Shoah (Holocaust), 647, 1518, 1588-1589; paradox of, 1589
Shona people, 33
SIBI. See International Society for Bioethics
Sibling rivalry, 785
Sickle-cell anemia, 141, 151, 568, 714
Siddhārtha Gautama. See Buddha
Sidgwick, Henry, 1363; on altruism, 47; on prudence, 1215
Sierra Club, 63, 140, 796, 1363-1364, 1681; and environmental movement, 456
Siger of Brabant, 113
Sikhism, 1364-1366; and golden rule, 597; and Nānak, 992; and suicide, 1429
Sikhs, 100
Silent Spring (Carson), 455, 503, 1367, 1458
Silver Springs Monkeys case, 1108
Sima Qian, 305, 1612
Simon, Julian, 858
Simon, Sidney, 954
Simpson, O. J., 1123
Sin, 1367-1371; Abelard, Peter, on, 1; Augustine, Saint, on, 108; and Christian ethics, 242;
and cruelty, 340-341; envy, 458
Sindell v. Abbott Laboratories (1980), 1194
Singer, Isaac Bashevis, 622
Singer, Jerome, 1095
Singer, Peter, 907, 1107, 1371-1372, 1544; on affirmative action, 942; on animal
rights, 61-62, 64-66, 503, 1343; on exploitation, 502; on infanticide, 735; on lifeboat ethics, 858
Sit-ins, 253
Sittler, Joseph, 456
Situational ethics, 281, 600, 908, 957, 1063, 1372-1373; and Dewey, John, 600; and
honesty, 669; and liberalism, 846; and obedience, 1064; and premarital sex, 1179
Six-Day War, 778-779
Skepticism, 1374-1375; and Hume, David, 692, 1041; and postmodernism, 1167-1168; and
relativism, 1252; and Smith, Adam, 1384; and Socrates, 10
Skilling, Jeffrey, 329
Skinner, B. F., 118-119, 680; and behaviorism, 120; on greed, 607
Skokie, Illinois, 204
Slander, 845
Slave trade, 1376, 1378, 1380
Slavery, 390, 1376-1381; and abolition, 1-2; ancient Roman, 276; and Christianity,
1231-1232; and Civil War, U.S., 434; and cloning, 571; and Constitution, U.S., 320; and
cultural genocide, 581; and developing world, 376; and discrimination, 390; Du Bois,
W. E. B., on, 412; and elitism, 433; and Emancipation Proclamation, 2, 434-435, 862;
and existentialism, 500; and exploitation, 502; and gratitude, 604; and human dignity, 383;
justifications, 1259; and Lincoln, Abraham, 434-435, 861; and modern child labor, 220;
Nietzsche, Friedrich, on, 127; and racism, 1230-1232; and rape, 879; and relativism, 1253;
and reparations, 77-78, 1260-1261; and Scott v. Sandford, 1325; and sex industry, 565;
and surrogate motherhood, 1443; and Thirteenth Amendment, 435; and Uncle Tom's
Cabin
(Stowe), 1519; and Washington, Booker T., 1577
"Slippery-slope" arguments, 1382-1383; and logic, 1383; and medical research, 926
Slote, Michael, 907
Sloth, 458, 831, 1369, 1546
Slovenia, 164
Smallpox, 134-135, 443, 1014, 1606; Boston epidemic, 923; and Native Americans, 1015
"Smart weapons, 93
Smith, Adam, 419, 659, 674, 950, 964, 1383-1385, 1603; on the ideal observer, 706;
on pride, 1182; on sales ethics, 1305; on sympathy, 965; Wealth of Nations, The, 421,
730, 951, 1384; on work, 1603-1604
Smith, Kiki, 89
Smith, Leighton, 765
Smith, William, 15
Smoking; addictive nature of, 1472; and advertising, 25; and biofeedback, 142; and
birth defects, 153; effects of, 184, 440; and tobacco industry, 1489-1493. See also Tobacco industry
Smuts, J. C., 834
SNCC. See Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Snepp, Frank W., 160
Snow, C. P., 1458
Soccer, Women's World Cup, 1489
Social contract theory, 1385-1387; and advertising, 24; and alienation, 44, 1386;
and cheating, 213; and constitutional government, 321-322; and democracy, 366; and
libertarianism, 848; and Rawls, John, 1480; and Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 1298-1299; and
Two Treatises of Government (Locke), 1516
Social Darwinism, 354, 493, 682, 1387-1388; and charity, 211; Dewey, John, on, 378; and
Hitler, Adolf, 1028-1029; and homelessness, 658-659; and Nazism, 1030; and racism, 1231;
and Spencer, Herbert, 354, 378, 1387-1388; and vice, 1547
Social engineering and affirmative action, 30
Social gospel movement, 814, 1038
Social justice, 1389-1390; and distribution of resources, 392-393; and dictatorship, 393;
and utilitarianism, 1390
Social Security Act, 38, 726; and Children's Bureau, 231; and disability rights, 387;
and health care, 920
Socialism, 1391-1392; and conservatism, 316; and revolution, 1392
Socialist Humanism, 691
Socialist Realism, 203
Society for Business Ethics, 1681
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), 218, 343, 689, 1393. See also
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (SPCC), 218, 229, 1679
Society of Christian Philosophers, 1681
Society of Professional Journalists, 739, 793-794
Sociobiology, 1393-1394
Sociology and Comte, Auguste, 294
Socrates, 474, 631, 1263, 1374, 1395-1396; on absolutism, 10; on academic freedom, 14;
and Apology, 78; and Aristotle, 49; and atheism, 101; on beauty, 87; on bribery, 169;
and Cyrenaics, 347; death of, 169, 246, 433, 852, 1133, 1503; dialectic method, 1041, 1134;
on elitism, 432; on evil, 1587; and existentialism, 851-852; on the good, 601; on incontinence, 1593;
and inductive reasoning, 1133; on justice, 801-802, 1262; on language, 824; on legitimacy of
the state, 248; on loyalty, 871; on meaning of life, 1173; on moral perfection, 371;
on moral relativism, 1132-1133; on ethical self-consciousness, 347; on intellect, 496,
499; paradoxes, 1132-1133, 1395; on piety, 851, 1254, 1256; and Plato, 475, 1130-1132;
on sin, 1133; on Sophism, 1252, 1401; and Sophists, 1395; on the soul, 10, 475;
trial of, 78; on virtue, 1133-1135, 1560
Söderblom, Nathan, 1666
Sodomy, 562, 665, 668, 1188, 1448; laws, 662
Software piracy, 287
Soldiers of fortune. See Mercenary soldiers
Solferino, Battle of, 759
Solidarity and United Nations, 1525
Solipsism, 117, 1424-1425
Solomon, Robert, 869
Solon, laws of, 321, 544
Solovyov, Vladimir S., 124
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 1396-1397; Gulag Archipelago, 614-615; and Nobel
Prize, 747; and Stalin, Joseph, 204
Somalia, 1103; human rights in, 687
Song lyrics, 1397-1400
Songs and Napster, 994
Sophists, 1401; and Socrates, 1395; and subjectivism, 1424
Sophocles, 313, 1047, 1121; Antigone, 246, 1047, 1121, 1503; on natural rights, 1021
Sōphrosynī, 494, 1331-1332
Sorel, Georges, 1556
Sōtō zen, 401-402, 887, 1611
Soul, Aristotle on, 85
Souter, David, 91
South Africa; apartheid, 74-75; capital punishment, 196; elections, 893; and
Gandhi, Mohandas K., 249; internal colonialism, 272; racial prejudice in, 1229; and
sanctions, 893; torture in, 1501; Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 1401-1403; and
Tutu, Desmond, 1516; and United Nations, 1526
Southern Baptist Convention, 166
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 253-254, 814
Southern Homestead Act of 1866, 1260
Southern Poverty Law Center, 1681
Sovereignty, 1403-1404; and developing world, 377; and intervention, 765; and national
security, 1003-1004; and United Nations, 1524
Soviet psychiatry, 1405-1406
Soviet Union; anti-Semitism in, 70; biochemical weapons, 135; censorship in, 204; and the
Cold War, 266-268; concentration camps, 295; famine, 520; gulags, 295-296, 614-615, 1397, 1498;
under Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, 839-842; New Economic Policy, 843; and North Atlantic
Treaty Organization, 1050; and nuclear arms race, 1054-1057; and Potsdam Conference, 1169;
and SALT treaties, 1306-1308; Socialist Realism, 203; and Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 1396;
and Stalin, Joseph, 381, 1409-1411; and Truman Doctrine, 1509
Spam, e-mail, 27, 428; and "Nigerian scam," 288
Spanish Civil War, 56
Sparshott, F. E., 1181
Sparta, 423, 665, 1324; infanticide in, 483
Spartacus, 276
SPCA. See Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
SPCC. See Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
Speciesism, 62, 64, 503, 998, 1152, 1371; definition, 61
Speer, Albert, 1061
Spemann, Hans, 259
Spencer, Herbert, 354, 378, 493, 1012; and Social Darwinism, 354, 378, 1387-1388
Sperm banks, 1406-1407
Spider-Man, 1383
Spies, 1507
Spina bifida, 152, 385
Spingarn, Joel E., 1000
Spingarn Medal, 1000
Spinoza, Baruch, 1408-1409; Ethics, 476, 622, 1112, 1408; on hate, 622; on hedonism, 631;
and Perry, R. B., 1112; on truth, 1513; on will, 1590-1591
Spiritual healing, 510
Spock, Benjamin, 229
Sports; athletes' incomes, 1195-1197; and eating, 593; and gambling, 125; hunting, 690;
hypocrisy in, 702; and organized crime, 125; and patriotism, 1099; Title IX, 1600;
Title IX, 1488, 1599; women in, 1354
Springer, Jerry, 1245
Ssu-ma Ch'ien. See Sima Qian
Stalin, Joseph, 1169, 1405, 1409-1412; and anti-Semitism, 70; and atom bomb, 104; and
communism, 277; and concentration camps, 295; dictatorship, 381, 1149; and famine, 520;
gulags, 614, 1498; and Hussein, Saddam, 699; mass murders of, 583, 1513; and Potsdam
Conference, 1169; and Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 204
Standard Oil, 73
Stanford University, 15
Stanley, Lawrence, 1400
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 1412-1413, 1426
Star, 1446
Stare decisis, 1438
Starvation and lifeboat ethics, 858
State of nature, 1413-1414; Locke, John, on, 1516
State supreme courts, 106-107
Stateless people, 1250-1251
Statute of Monopolies of 1623, 73
Stem cells; and Bush, George W., 1416; and cloning, 260; and genetic engineering, 569-570;
and research, 8, 922, 926, 1415-1417
Stendhal, 730, 869
Steptoe, Patrick, 722
Sterba, James, 1170
Stereotypes; and advertising, 24; ageist, 37; gay, 663; male, 560; and oppression, 1071;
racist, 3, 390-391, 996, 1609; sexist, 122, 1347, 1349, 1351-1352; and slavery, 1261
Sterilization; and eugenics, 483; and mental illness, 935; and sperm banks, 1407;
of women, 1418-1419
Stern, William and Elizabeth, 1442
Stevenson, Charles L., 265, 437, 772, 824, 1042, 1112, 1538
Stewart, Martha, 1419-1420
Stewart, Potter, 1158
Stimson, Henry L., 785
Stock market, 1203; crash, 1269, 1470; insider trading, 740, 1269; profit taking, 1203;
and retirement funds, 1269-1270
Stoic ethics, 156, 680, 1340, 1421-1422; Cicero, 245, 1017; Epictetus, 459; and equality, 685;
on evil, 487; and future generations, 553; and integrity, 747; loyalty, 871; Marcus Aurelius, 898;
mercy, 940; natural law, 1017; Pantheism, 1086; Philo of Alexandria, 1122; rationality, 465;
sexual intercourse, 150; sōphrosynī, 1332; suicide, 1340; virtue, 1561
Stolypin, Peter, 100
Stone, Christopher, 1138
Stone, Lucy, 1426
Stonewall Inn riots, 562, 1423
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 80, 1519
Strasser, Adolf, 52
Strassmann, Fritz, 1057
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties. See SALT treaties
Strauss, Richard, 1397
Strawson, P. F., 963
Streicher, Julius, 1061
Stresemann, Gustav, 1665
Strike, Kenneth A., 1180
Stroebel, Charles, 143
Structuralism, 358
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 253-254
Subjectivism, 264-265, 599, 763, 1278, 1372, 1424-1425, 1536-1537; and fact/value
distinction, 506; and human nature, 681; Moore, G. E., on, 953; and Nagel, Thomas, 992;
and naturalism, 1049; and right and wrong, 1278; and Russell, Bertrand, 1301
Submission; and humility, 694; and Islam, 773-774; and obedience, 1064; in Shintoism, 1362
Subsidiarity, 1525
Substantive rights, 251
Subversion and loyalty oaths, 873
Sudan and slavery, 1381
Suez Crisis, 1103; and Iraq, 770
Suffering; and Buddha, 174; and Buddhism, 154, 533; and existentialism, 498-499;
and pain, 1081
Suffrage, 1426-1427; and poll taxes, 1150
Sufism, 95, 116, 587-588, 616-617, 1427-1428; and Alī ibn Abī Tālib, 43; and Ibn
al-Arabī, 704-705; and Muhammad, 979; and mysticism, 587; and Rābiah al-Adawīyah, 1228;
and Rūmī, Jalāl al-Dīn, 1300-1301
Suicide, 1428-1430; and depression, 430; and duty, 1342; and Hippocratic oath, 138; and
pessimism, 1119; and rock and roll music, 1398; and self-preservation, 1339-1340;
and self-respect, 1342
Suicide assistance, 1430-1432; and Kevorkian, Jack, 810
Sullivan, Anne, 810
Summa Theologica (Thomas Aquinas), 553, 1017, 1214, 1432-1433, 1474, 1482, 1561
Summerlin, William, 1319
Sumner, Charles, 1379
Sumner, William Graham, 15, 1388
Sun Tzu. See Sunzi
Sunnīism, 43, 769, 1227, 1360-1361; and Abū Hanīfah, 12; and Shīism, 43
Sunnīs, 1434
"Sunshine laws," 1222
Sunzi, Art of War, The, 92
Superconducting Supercollider, 1318
Supererogation, 1434-1436; and maximal vs. minimal ethics, 908
Superfund, 1502
Superman (Übermensch), 1174, 1504
Superstition, Cynics on, 346
Supreme Being; in African religions, 31-33, 35; and deism, 364-365, 1163; in Hinduism, 637
Supreme Court, U.S., 1436-1438; on abortion, 1292-1293; on affirmative action, 30; and
antitrust legislation, 73; and the arts, 91; and Bill of Rights, 130, 132; on birth control, 609;
Brandeis, Louis D., 168; Brown v. Board of Education, 170-171; and campaign
finance reform, 190; and capital punishment, 194; and censorship, 205-207; on child support, 400;
and church-state separation, 244-245; and Civil Rights movement, 253; on conscientious
objection, 314; on due process, 588, 603; and electronic surveillance, 429-430; and
entitlements, 449; on erroneous convictions, 469; on film censorship, 973-974; on free
expression, 546; on gay rights, 562; gender discrimination cases, 464; on genetic
engineering, 571, 1461; justice selection, 1439-1440; and loyalty oaths, 873-874; and
Pentagon Papers, 1106; and Plessy v. Ferguson, 1136; on pornography, 1159; on
privacy, 1187-1188; and public's right to know, 1222; on right to die, 1283; on right to
life, 484; on school desegregation, 744; and Scottsboro case, 1325; on sexual harassment, 440;
on sterilization, 1418; on suicide assistance, 1432; and three-strikes laws, 1486;
and voting fraud, 1566
Surgeon general, U.S., 256, 1490; and song lyrics, 1400
Surgery and robotics, 1289
Surrogate motherhood, 720, 1440-1443
"Survival of the fittest," 354, 493, 1025, 1030, 1388
Survivor, 1245
Sustainability of resources, 1443-1445
Suttner, Bertha von, 1044, 1665
Swaggert, Jimmy, 672, 702, 1467
Swann v. Board of Education (1971), 744
Sweatt v. Painter (1949), 1330
Sweden and Nobel Peace Prize, 1044-1045
Sweepstakes, 25
Swinburne, Richard, 1370
Swiss Reform movement, 1370
Sydenham, Thomas, 866
Sykes, Gresham, 486
Sympathy, 706
Syphilis, 1357; Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 927, 1000, 1321
Szasz, Thomas, 742, 934, 1217, 1430

T
Tabloid journalism, 1447
Tabloid television, 1447
Taboos, 1447-1448; and adultery, 22
Tacitus, 1560
Taft, William H., 834, 1437
Taft-Hartley Act. See Labor-Management Relations Act
Tagore, Rabindranath, 1449
Taliban, 657, 792, 1004, 1477; and refugees, 1251
Talmud, 789, 943, 1449-1452; Mishnah, 789, 889, 1449-1452; and Torah, 1496
Tanakh, 628
Taney, Roger B., 1325
Tankh. See Hebrew Bible
Taoism. See Daoism
Taub, Edward, 63
Taxes, 213, 419, 1453-1456; and citizenship, 246; deductions for charity, 122, 210;
and "free-riding," 509; income, 419; and income distribution, 727; and lottery revenue, 867-869;
on tobacco, 1454
Taylor, Harriet, 1495
Tay-Sachs disease, 141, 151, 568
Te. See De
Teachers and loyalty oaths, 874
Technology, 1456-1463; biometrics, 144-146; and distribution of wealth, 1461; identity
theft, 709-711; and postmodernism, 1167; robotics, 1289-1291. See also Information technology
Telecommunications Act of 1996, 234
Telemarketing, 1464-1465; National Do Not Call Registry, 1465
Teleology, 116, 124, 599, 1020, 1432, 1465-1467; and Aristotle, 958, 1016, 1432; and
consequentialism, 156, 367-368; vs. deontology, 367, 1466-1467; and Hegel, Georg
Wilhelm Friedrich, 632; and libertarianism, 848; and natural law, 1020; and nirvana, 1042
Telephones; National Do Not Call Registry, 1465; and telemarketing, 1464
Televangelists, 1467-1468
Television; and aggressive behavior, 40; educational programming, 235; infomercials, 736;
reality programming, 1246; tabloid journalism, 1447; and televangelists, 1467-1468; V-chips, 234
Temperance, 1469-1471; and self-control, 1561
Temptation, 1471-1472
Ten Commandments, 101, 282, 368, 529, 629, 875, 877, 958, 972, 1048, 1373, 1472-1473;
and family values, 517; on fraud, 534; and moral rules, 958
Tenenbaum, Samuel, 623
Tenzin Gyatso. See Dalai Lama
Teresa, Mother, 1667
Terrorism, 1474-1477; and anarchy, 56; and anti-Semitism, 71; and biochemical weapons, 132-133,
135-136; and electronic surveillance, 429; and homeland defense, 657
Terry, Randall, 1205
Tertullian, 922
Test Oath Cases (1867), 874
"Test-tube babies," 1440
Thalidomide, 733
Thanatology, 355
Theft; and computer crime, 287
Theism, 364-365, 395, 487, 1537, 1590; and atheism, 101; and deism, 364; and empiricism, 865;
and evil, 489-490; and Locke, John, 866; in Old Testament, 972; and pantheism, 1085;
and progressivism, 489; and Vaiknavism, 1542
Theodicy, 475, 487, 490, 599, 601, 629, 713, 968
Theodorus the Atheist, 348
Theory and practice, 1478-1479
Theory of Justice, A (Rawls), 368, 495, 508, 1244, 1479-1480, 1584; on impartiality, 720;
on self-respect, 1342
Therapist-patient relationship, 297, 1216, 1480-1481
Therapy groups. See Group therapy
Theravāda Buddhism, 154, 176-178, 809, 821; and humanism, 690
Third Lateran Council, 654
Third World. See Developing world
Thirteenth Amendment, 2; and Lincoln, Abraham, 862
Thomas Aquinas, 475, 1482-1483; on altruism, 48; on assassination, 98; and Augustine,
Saint, 108; on benevolence, 122; on conscience, 309; on courage, 635; on cruelty, 343;
on divine command theory, 1278, 1435; on euthanasia, 484; on evil, 487; and Fārābī, al-, 521;
on friendship, 553; on the good, 599, 1257; on humility, 694; on intention, 750;
on just war theory, 800, 1474, 1554, 1568; on law, 827-828; on mercy, 939; on morality, 968, 970;
on natural law, 1017-1019, 1022, 1340; on nature, 966; on prudence, 1214; on Pure Being, 113;
on reason, 1018; on revelation, 1271; on suicide, 1340; Summa Theologica, 1432-1433;
and Thomism, 48, 1257; on truth, 1513; on universalism, 1252; on value, 1536; on vice, 1547;
on virtue, 1561; on will, 1590
Thomism, 599, 1257; and altruism, 48; and morality, 970
Thomson, James, 1415
Thoreau, Henry David, 436, 1484; on civil disobedience, 248; on conservation, 316;
and King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1554; on nonviolence, 1047; and transcendentalism,
1505-1506; Walden, 1567
Thrasymachus, 474, 801, 967, 1132, 1134, 1173, 1263
Threats and coercion, 263
Three Mile Island, 457, 1057
Three-strikes laws, 1091, 1485-1486
Thrower, James, 102
Thuggees, 100
Tiantong Rujing, 402
Tibet; Buddhism, 112, 349-350, 886, 991; and Dalai Lama, 349-350
"Ticking time bomb" scenario, 1005
Tiglath-Pileser III, 480
Till, Emmett, 880, 1233
Tillich, Paul, 986, 1038, 1370, 1486-1487; and existentialism, 498; and situational ethics, 1373
Tillman, Ben, 879
Tillman Act of 1907, 190
Time magazine, 1123
Times Film Corp. v. City of Chicago (1961), 206
Tinbergen, Nikolaas, 493
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969), 407
Tipping, 1487
Title IX, 1488, 1600, 1599; and World Cup, 1489
Tito, Josip Broz, 164
Tobacco industry, 183-184, 1489-1493; advertising, 25; "Joe Camel," 26, 185; and
retirement funds, 1270; and second-hand smoke, 440; taxes on, 1454. See also Smoking
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 730, 949, 959
Tokugawa era, 180
"Tokyo Rose," 1507
Tolerance, 1494-1495
Tolins, Jonathan, 667
Tolstoy, Leo, 1047; on anarchy, 56; War and Peace, 1324
Tooley, Michael; and infanticide, 735
Torah, 628, 1450, 1452, 1496-1497; on duty, 116; gemarah, 1452; law codes, 628-629;
and moral law, 282; and Moses, 971-972; and Talmud, 1449; on truth, 761
Torres, Camilio, 1555
Torture, 55, 384, 686-687, 1498-1499, 1501; in Argentina, 389; and asceticism, 95;
and concentration camps, 295; and dirty hands, 386; and evil, 1498; and Geneva Conventions, 580;
in Iraq, 699; and mental illness, 933; and national security, 1004; Nietzsche, Friedrich, on, 341;
in South Africa, 1402; in Soviet gulags, 615; and Soviet psychology, 1406; in Soviet Union, 1410;
and utilitarianism, 1532
Totalitarianism, 110; Arendt, Hannah, on, 82; and assassination, 100; Camus, Albert, on, 191;
and censorship, 203; and covert action, 335; and espionage, 471; and fascism, 522; and
Lenin, V. I, 843; vs. libertarianism, 847; and liberty, 1145; and nationalism, 1007;
Orwell, George, on, 1074; Skinner, B. F., on, 120; and Stalin, Joseph, 1409-1411;
and vice, 1546
Totems, 1448
Toxic waste, 1502
Trade and World Trade Organization, 1607-1608
Trademarks, 748
Traffic fatalities and drug abuse, 408
Traficant, James A., 306
Tragedy, 341, 497, 1503-1504; Harding, Garrett, on, 858; and Nine-Eleven, 27; Unamuno y Jugo,
Miguel, on, 1519
Tragedy of commons, 858, 1461
Transcendentalism, 1504-1506; and Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 436; and meaning of life, 850;
and reason, 1505; and Thoreau, Henry David, 1484, 1505-1506; and utilitarianism, 1505;
and Vedānta, 1541-1542
Treason, 1506-1508; in ancient Rome, 544; and art, 89; and capital punishment, 194; and
Dreyfus, Alfred, 1614; and loyalty oaths, 873; and sedition, 1328; and U.S. Constitution, 251, 1506
Treaty of Versailles, 1508; and League of Nations, 834; and Nazi Germany, 1032
Trespassing and computer crime, 289
Triage, 1509
Trilling, Lionel, 110
Trimble, David, 1668
Trivers, Robert, 1394
Truman, Harry S., 744, 1169; and civil rights, 274; and the Cold War, 267; on health
insurance, 467; and McCarthy, Joseph R., 882; and Potsdam Conference, 1169
Truman Doctrine, 1509
Trump, Donald, 1245
"Trump value," 65, 299, 413, 956
Trust and mentoring, 936
Trustworthiness, 1509-1511
Truth, 1511-1514; and advertising, 736; and intersubjectivity, 763-764; and intuitionist
ethics, 766-767; and language, 823-824; and libel, 845; and news sources, 1035-1036;
and nihilism, 1040-1041; and perjury, 1110
Truth and Reconciliation Commission. See South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Truthfulness vs. trustworthiness, 1510
Tuberculosis, 698, 1607
Tucker, C. Delores, 1398
Tunney, Gene, 1196
Turgenev, Ivan, 1041
Turing, Alan, 92
Turkey; Armenian genocide, 583, 585, 839; Atatürk, 100; etiqette in, 481; secularism, 773
Turkmen, 769
Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 927, 1000, 1321
Tutsi, 1228, 1302
Tutu, Desmond, 1401, 1515-1516; Nobel Peace Prize, 1046, 1667
Twain, Mark, 160; and biometrics, 146
Twelve-step programs, 604, 930, 1471
Twelvers (Im3mis), 1361
Two Treatises of Government (Locke), 1516-1517
Tyco, 186, 329
Tylor, Edward, 1012
Tyranny, 1517, 1549; and assassination, 96-99
Tyrants; and International Criminal Court, 752
Tzaddik, 1517-1518

U
Ukraine famine, 520, 585
Ulysses (Joyce), 159, 206, 1159
Umberto I, 56
Unamuno y Jugo, Miguel de, 1519; on tragedy, 1504
Uncle Tom's Cabin (Stowe), 80, 1519-1520
Unconditional surrender, 1520-1522
Unemployment; and child abuse, 218; and free-market policies, 758; and minimum-wage laws, 949
UNESCO. See United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNESCO Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, 1522-1523
Uniformity, Act of, 14
Union of Concerned Scientists, 1523, 1682
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. See Soviet Union
Unitarianism, 691, 1505
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF); Nobel Peace Prize, 1667
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Office of, 1666-1667
United Farm Workers, 165
United Nations, 1523-1526, 1682; and Bosnia, 163, 765; and human rights, 685-686;
International Labor Office (ILO), 221; and Iraq, 699; and Israel, 777; and Israeli-Palestinian
conflict, 778-779; and Kosovo, 818; Nobel Peace Prize, 1045, 1667-1668; peacekeeping
missions, 1102-1103; and Rwanda genocide, 352, 1304; and sanctions, 1309-1310; and slavery, 1380;
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1529
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 137
United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 584,
1527; and Lemkin, Raphael, 839
United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1528
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons, 1529
United Nations Development Program, 366
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO);
and human genome research, 1522
United States v. Abrams (1919), 204
United States v. Chiarella (1980), 741
United States v. New York Times Company (1971), 794
United States v. One Book Entitled Ulysses (1934), 206
United States v. Seeger (1965), 314
United States v. Welch (1970), 314
United Steelworkers v. Weber (1979), 30
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 984, 1021, 1023, 1288, 1529-1530; and Amnesty
International, 55; and children's rights, 231; and concentration camps, 296; and genocide, 584;
and privacy, 430; on torture, 384; and United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1528
Universal Declaration on Human Rights; and slavery, 1380
Universal Negro Improvement Association, 996
Universalizability, 1530
University honor codes, 675-676
University of California and loyalty oaths, 874
Unsafe at Any Speed (Nader), 323
Untouchables, 199, 1259, 1447; and Poona Pact, 1154
Up from Slavery (Washington), 1577
Upanisads, 1530-1531, 1542; Ahimsā, 42; asceticism in, 95; and Aurobindo, Sri, 109; and
Hinduism, 637; and karma, 808; and mysticism, 986, 988; and Sankara, 1311;
and Tagore, Rabindranath, 1449
Uragami Gyokudo, 180
Urmson, J. O., 1435
Ur-nammu, Code of, 617
U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union
Usury and Islam, 774
Utilitarianism, 1531-1532; and absolutism, 10; and animal rights, 62, 64; and Bentham, Jeremy, 124;
and Bradley, F. H., 166; and business ethics, 182; and capital punishment, 195; and
capitalism, 197-198; and censorship, 204; Dewey, John, on, 378; and distributive
justice, 392; and drug testing, 410; and electronic surveillance, 429; and genetically
modified foods, 575; and health care allocation, 627; and honor codes, 675; and immigration, 716;
and impartiality, 720; and infanticide, 735; and integrity, 747; and lifeboat ethics, 858;
and Mill, John Stuart, 948; on moral status of animals, 966; and "not in my backyard," 1052;
and Nozick, Robert, 1054; and permissible acts, 1112; and premarital sex, 1180; and
punishment, 337-338; and right and wrong, 1280; and self-interest, 1335; and service to
others, 1344; and Sidgwick, Henry, 1363; and social justice, 1390; and supererogation, 1435;
and technology, 1462; and torture, 1532; and transcendentalism, 1505; and triage, 1509;
and Washington, Booker T., 1576-1577
Utopia, 45, 173, 179, 381, 713, 1165-1167, 1256, 1533-1534; and communism, 551; and
economic equality, 1203; and messianism, 942; and punishment, 1224; and socialism, 1391-1392
Utopia (More), 78, 276, 1533-1534

V
Valdez Principles, 452-453
Valenti, Jack, 974
Valuation, Dewey, John, on, 379
Value, 1535-1538; and advertising, 24; and Beyond Good and Evil (Nietzsche), 126;
and lifestyles, 859; and Nagel, Thomas, 992; and perfectionism, 1109; and Perry, R. B., 1112;
and pluralism, 1137; and political correctness, 1143; Wittgenstein, Ludwig, on, 1595
Values clarification, 1539-1540; and moral education, 954
Van Buren, Abigail, 28
Vandalism and computer crime, 287
Vanderbilt, Amy, 481
Vanity, 480, 1182, 1468, 1482, 1602
Vardhamāna, 781, 1541
Vasectomy, 149-150, 1284, 1407, 1418
Vatican Council II; and Index Librorum Prohibitorum, 729
V-chips, 234
Veatch, Robert M., 501, 856
Vedānta, 1449, 1541-1543; and mysticism, 988; and Sankara, 1311; and Tagore, Rabindranath, 1449
Vedas, 200, 636, 1531; Bhagavadgītā, 127; on caste, 199; and Jainism, 781;
Upanisads, 95, 109, 637, 808, 986, 1311, 1530; and Vedānta, 1542
Veganism, 1543-1544
Vegetarianism, 42, 96, 1543-1544; and animal rights movement, 64, 66; and Buddhism, 177, 529;
and Jainism, 782, 809; and Manichaeanism, 896
Verdi, Giuseppi, 1397
Verification principle, 114
Vespasian, 345
Veterans' rights, 1545-1546
Vice, 1546-1547; and narcissism, 995; and selfishness, 1336
Vichy France collaboration, 241
Victimless crimes, 1213; and drug use, 410; and Internet piracy, 762; and prostitution, 1213;
and vice, 1546
Victims' rights, 1547-1549
Victoria, Queen, 343, 1576
Vienna Circle, 114
Vietnam War, 1549-1552; biochemical weapons in, 135; and civil disobedience, 250; and
Civil Rights movement, 254; My Lai massacre, 1064, 1552; and Nobel Peace Prizes, 1045;
and peace studies, 1101; and Pentagon Papers, 1106; and private vs. public morality, 1189
Vigilantism and international justice, 753
Vincennes, USS, 93
Viner, Jacob, 465
Violence, 1553-1556; and abuse, 12-13; and religion, 1258-1259; and children's television, 234-235;
and just war theory, 1474; lynching, 879-881; and military ethics, 947; and nationalism, 1007;
and pacifism, 1079-1080; police brutality, 1139-1141; and song lyrics, 1399; and terrorism, 1476;
against women, 565. See also Nonviolence
Virgil, 968
Virgin Mary. See Mary, Virgin
Virginia, University of, honor code, 675
Virginity; in Africa, 35; in films, 974; and suicide, 1429
Virtual reality, 1557-1558
Virtue, 1559-1562; altruism, 46-49; and Aristotelian ethics, 83; Aristotle on, 85; and
Buddhism, 177; and courage, 333-334; Cynics on, 346; and elitism, 432; and golden mean, 596;
and gratitude, 604; and greatest good principle, 1562; and honesty, 669-673; and honor, 674;
and humility, 694; and loyalty, 871; and mercy, 938-939; and military ethics, 947; and
motivation, 975-976; and obedience, 1064; and patriotism, 1098-1099; and Platonic ethics, 1132-1133;
and pride, 1182; and prudence, 1214; and role models, 1295; and self-control, 1331;
Thomas Aquinas on, 1482; and tzaddik, 1517-1518
Virtue ethics, 1563-1564; and business ethics, 182
Viruses, computer, 287
Visnu, 127, 637, 1530-1531, 1542
Vivekānanda, 1543
Vivisection, 60, 922-923, 998, 1564
Voltaire, 445, 1022, 1501, 1565
Voter Education Project, 254
Voting. See Suffrage
Voting fraud, 1566
Voting Rights Act of 1965, 254, 274, 819

W
Wage discrimination, 1567
Wagner Act. See National Labor Relations Act
Wagner, Richard, 645
Wagner, Robert, 1001
Wailing Wall, 790
Waksal, Samuel, 1420
Walden (Thoreau), 1567-1568
Wałesa, Lech, 1667
Walker, John Anthony, 1507
Wal-Mart, 186, 1399
Walt Disney Enterprises, 1364
Walzer, Michael, 1104, 1476, 1552; on dirty hands, 386; on immigration, 715-716;
on war, 1572
Wang Yangming, 1568
War, 1568-1572; and Art of War, The (Sunzi), 92; biochemical weapons, 132-136;
chemical weapons, 214-216; and conscientious objection, 313; and famines, 520; and Geneva
conventions, 578-579; Grotius, Hugo, on, 610; holy war, 653-656; limited, 860; and military
ethics, 946-947; and On War (Clausewitz), 1069; and pacifism, 1079-1080; and peace
studies, 1100-1101; and realpolitik, 1246; and religion, 1258-1259; scorched-earth policies, 1323-1324;
and "smart weapons," 93; and taxation, 1453; and unconditional surrender, 1520-1521;
Vietnam War, 1549-1552
War crimes trials, 1573-1574; and Human Rights Watch, 689; Nuremberg, 1060-1061
War on Poverty, 625, 672, 1584
Warfield, Ethelbert D., 15
Warnock, Mary, 102
Warranties, 25, 738, 1574-1575
Warren, Earl, 170
Warren, Karen, 417
Warren, Samuel D., 1122
Warsaw Pact, 1051, 1055
Washington, Booker T., 1575-1577; and Du Bois, W. E. B., 412
Wasserstrom, Richard, 942
Water pollution; and Clean Water Act, 257; and toxic waste, 1502
Water Pollution Control Act of 1956, 257
Watergate scandal, 331, 702, 1189, 1514, 1578; and Freedom of Information Act, 549;
and Pentagon Papers case, 1107; reporting of, 740, 792; and SALT treaties, 1308
Watson, J. B., 120
Watson, James, 568, 570
Watt, James, 456
Watts, Alan, 1611
Weakness of will, 1578-1579, 1593; and temptation, 1471
Wealth, 1171-1172; and charity, 211; distribution of, 375; and Islam, 774; and property, 1209-1210
Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 421, 730, 951, 1384
Weapons; chemical, 214-216; nonconventional, 214
Weapons of mass destruction, 699; and the Cold War, 267; in Iraq, 770
Weapons research, 1579-1580
Weber, Max, 713, 1049, 1174, 1581; on Calvinism, 189; on private vs. public morality, 1189; on work, 1605
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989), 1285, 1293
Welfare, 1582-1583; and distributive justice, 393; entitlements, 449; and families, 512-513;
homeless care, 658-659; and poverty, 1170; rights, 1583-1584
Welfare state, and Nozick, Robert, 1054
Westminster, Statute of, 1403
Westmoreland v. Columbia Broadcasting System (1984), 795
Whistleblowing, 1585; and public's right to know, 1222
White, Leslie, 1458
White, Lynn, 456
White Citizens Council, 252
White-collar crime, 1586; and "everyone does it" justifications, 486
"White Rabbit," 1398
"White slavery," 40, 1381
Whitehead, Alfred North, 621, 707, 1131, 1586; and Russell, Bertrand, 1301
Whitehead, Mary Beth, 1442
WHO. See World Health Organization
Wickedness, 1587-1588
Wiener, Norbert, 1458
Wiesel, Elie, 1588-1589; on evil, 490; foundation of, 1674; on the Holocaust, 649;
Nobel Peace Prize, 1667
Wigglesworth, Edward, 15
Wilberforce, William, 1378
Wilde, Oscar, 1397, 1471
Wilderness Act of 1964, 1589
Wildlife, 454, 1027; endangered species, 441-442; extinctions, 361, 606
Wilke, Jack, 1205
Wilkins, Maurice, 568, 570
Wilkins, Roy, 999
Will, 1590-1593; and motivation, 975-976; Nietzsche, Friedrich, on, 1039; and reason, 1590
Willadsen, Steen, 259
William of Ockham, 750, 1592
Williams, Betty, 1667
Williams, Eric, 1378
Williams, Henry Sylvester, 1083
Williams, Jody, 1668
Williams, Roger, 244
Williams, Tennessee, 667
Wilmut, Ian, 259
Wilson, Bill, 604
Wilson, E. O., 46, 284, 1393-1394; on ethology, 493; on human nature, 681
Wilson, John, 954
Wilson, Woodrow, 81, 834; Fourteen Points, 833, 1508, 1521; and League of Nations, 833;
Nobel Peace Prize, 1665; and women's suffrage, 1427
Winner, Langdon, 1460
Wisdom, 1594; and prudence, 1214
Wisdom literature, 629, 1602
Wise Use Movement, 456
Wissler, Clark, 1012
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 852, 1595
Wojnarowicz, David, 89
Wollstonecraft, Mary, 1351, 1426, 1595-1596
Wolpe, Joseph, 118
Woman's Rights Convention, 1413
Women; in advertising, 26; and care ethics, 122; and Civil Rights movement, 254;
cultural biases against, 565; feminism, 526-527; and gender bias, 564-565; and hate-crime laws, 624;
and Islam, 775, 979; and Jesus Christ, 789; and social contract theory, 1387; sports, 1489;
sterilization of, 1418; and surrogate motherhood, 1440-1442; and wage discrimination, 1567
Women's ethics, 1596-1598; and postmodernism, 1168
Women's movement, 1598-1601; and rape, 1242; and suffrage, 1426-1427
Women's rights; and abolition movement, 3; and ecofeminism, 417; and National Organization for
Women, 1002; and rape, 1243; and Second Sex, The (Beauvoir), 1326
Women's Social and Political Union, 1427
Woods, Tiger, 1197
Woodson, Carter, 1000
Woodstock music festival, 1350
Woodward, Bob, 739, 1578
Woolman, John, 1
Work, 1602-1605; and alienation, 45
Work ethic, 189, 513
Worker's compensation, 438-439
Workplace dress codes, 405-406
Works Progress Administration, 89
World Bank, 590, 592, 758, 1172
World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture, 31
World Conference on Music and Censorship, 1400
World economy; and World Trade Organization, 1607-1608
World Federation for the Protection of Animals, 1607
World Health Organization (WHO), 1606-1607, 1682; on suicide, 1428
World Medical Association; Declaration of Helsinki, 923
World Policy Institute, 1101
World Society for the Protection of Animals, 1607, 1682
World Trade Center, attack on, 72, 656, 775, 792, 1260, 1474-1475
World Trade Organization (WTO), 590, 592, 1607-1608; protests against, 591
World War I; Armenian genocide, 583, 585; chemical weapons, 214; and Germany, 582; and
League of Nations, 833; Lenin, Vladimir Ilich, on, 842; and Red Cross, 760; Treaty of
Versailles, 1508; unconditional surrender doctrine in, 1521
World War II; anti-Semitism during, 71; chemical weapons, 214; and conscientious
objection, 314; Dresden firebombing, 404; and Geneva conventions, 580; Hiroshima and
Nagasaki bombings, 641-645; and Hitler, Adolf, 643; human rights violations, 1021;
and Japan, 1363; Japanese American internment, 783-784; Manhattan Project, 104, 894, 1320;
Nazism, 1030-1032; and Nuremberg Trials, 1060-1061; Potsdam Conference, 1169; reparations
issues, 1169; Soviet Union in, 1410-1412; and Treaty of Versailles, 1508; unconditional
surrender doctrine in, 1520-1521
World Wide Web. See Internet
World Zionist Organization, 168
WorldCom, 186, 329-330; and ethical codes, 471
Worldwatch Institute, 140
Worster, Donald, 606
Wretched of the Earth, The (Fanon), 1609
Wright, Jim, 307
Wright, Richard, 880, 1000
Wrongdoing and harm, 619
WTO. See World Trade Organization
Wyatt v. Stickney (1971), 935

X
Xenotransplantation, 149
Xun Qing. See Xunzi
Xunzi, 303-304, 1610

Y
Yale University, 15
Yamaga Soko, 180
Yamamoto Tsunetomo, 180
Yangism, 928
Yazid, 43
Yellow fever, 1607
Yeltsin, Boris, 135
Yi, 304, 928, 1610; Mencius on, 928
Yoder, John Howard, 1080
Yoga, 127, 1531
Yom Kippur War, 778
Yosemite National Park, 1364
Young Turks, 101, 583
Yugoslavia, 163; breakup of, 163, 1251; concentration camps, 295-296; Kosovo, 817

Z
Zarathushtra. See Zoroaster
Zen Buddhism, 991, 1611; and Bodhidharma, 153; and bushido, 180; and Daoism, 352, 1611;
and Dōgen, 401, 887; and humanism, 690; and Mādhyamaka, 886-887; and wisdom, 1594.
See also Buddhism
Zeno of Citium, 1340, 1421-1422, 1561
Zero-base ethics, 300-301, 1612
Zero Population Growth, 1155
"Zero-sum" economics, 300, 1612
Zhu Xi, 1568, 1612
Zhuangzi, 352, 1613-1614
Zionism, 776, 1614-1615; and anti-Semitism, 70
Zola, Émile, 730
Zoos, 441, 690, 1607
Zoroaster, 1615; and Mani, 896
Zoroastrianism, 1615-1617; and evil, 489; and golden rule, 597; and homosexuality, 666;
and Manichaeanism, 896; and Satan, 489



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